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Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is synthesized by two isoforms of the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65 and GAD67). GAD67 is constitutively active and is responsible for basal GABA production. In contrast, GAD65, an autoantigen in type I diabetes, is transiently activated in response to the demand for extra GABA in(More)
Hydroxytyrosol is quantitatively and qualitatively the principal phenolic antioxidant in olive oil. Recently it was shown that hydroxytyrosol and five metabolites were excreted in urine when hydroxytyrosol was dosed intravenously or orally in an olive oil solution to rats. The conclusive identification of three metabolites of hydroxytyrosol by MS/MS as a(More)
Complex phenols, such as the glycoside oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, are found in high concentrations in the typical components of the Mediterranean diet. We have previously reported that oleuropein inhibits androstenedione 6 beta-hydroxylase activity, a CYP3A marker in human liver microsomes (Stupans, I., Stretch, G., Hayball, P., 2000. Olive oil phenols(More)
BACKGROUND In mammals succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) plays an essential role in the metabolism of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to succinic acid (SA). Deficiency of SSADH in humans results in elevated levels of GABA and gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), which leads to psychomotor retardation, muscular hypotonia,(More)
The vast oceans of the world, which comprise a huge variety of unique ecosystems, are emerging as a rich and relatively untapped source of novel bioactive compounds with invaluable biotechnological and pharmaceutical potential. Evidence accumulated over the last decade has revealed that the diversity of marine microorganisms is enormous with many thousands(More)
Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) is a small protein with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which has potential application in the disease control. Previously, we isolated seven ALF isoforms from the Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. In the present study, their distributions in tissues of shrimp were analyzed and the data showed that(More)
In vitro studies have shown phenolics in olive oil to be strong radical scavengers. The absorption and elimination of two radiolabeled phenolic constituents of olive oil, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol were studied in vivo using rats. Compounds were administered intravenously (in saline) and orally (in oil- and water-based solutions). For both compounds, the(More)
Typical components of the Mediterranean diet, such as olive oil and red wine, contain high concentrations of complex phenols, which have been suggested to have an important antioxidant role. The aim of the present work was to determine the inhibitory potency of compounds such as oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and other structurally related compounds, such as(More)
Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has emerged as a major public health problem around the world. In Australia, ST93-IV[2B] is the dominant CA-MRSA clone and displays significantly greater virulence than other S. aureus. Here, we have examined the evolution of ST93 via genomic analysis of 12 MSSA and 44 MRSA ST93(More)
Plant polyphenols, such as gallic acid, have been reported to have a range of biological activities including antimutagenic effects. Previously, we reported that gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), an agent found in wine and tea, inhibits androstenedione 6beta-hydroxylase activity (Ki 70 microm), a cytochrome P450 (CYP3A) marker in human liver(More)