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Although it has been known for many years that estrogen administration has deleterious effects on male fertility, data from transgenic mice deficient in estrogen receptors or aromatase point to an essential physiological role for estrogen in male fertility. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the localization of estrogen receptors and aromatase(More)
The aromatase-knockout (ArKO) mouse provides a useful model to examine the role that estrogens play in development and homeostasis in mammals. Lacking a functional Cyp19 gene, which encodes aromatase, the ArKO mouse cannot synthesize endogenous estrogens. We examined the adipose depots of male and female ArKO mice, observing that these animals progressively(More)
It is well established that spermatogenesis is controlled by gonadotrophins and testosterone. However, a role for estrogens in male reproduction recently was suggested in adult mice deficient in estrogen receptor alpha. These mice became infertile primarily because of an interruption of fluid reabsorption by the efferent ductules of the epididymis, thus(More)
Previous studies employing the male aromatase knockout (ArKO) mouse have indicated that local expression of estrogens appears to be important for the progression of spermatogenesis. In the absence of estrogen biosynthesis round spermatids are observed to undergo apoptosis and thus fail to differentiate into mature, elongated spermatids. This lesion appears(More)
Natural (human) and experimental (mouse) models of estrogen insufficiency have revealed hitherto unexpected roles for estrogens in both males and females. In postmenopausal women, and in men, estrogen no longer has a major role as a circulating hormone, but rather it functions locally as a paracrine or even 'intracrine' factor in tissue sites where it is(More)
It is now apparent that in men and in postmenopausal women, estrogens have important physiological and pathophysiological roles. However, importantly, these actions are at a local level, namely paracrine, autocrine, and even 'intracrine' rather than endocrine in the classical sense. Thus for example local estrogen biosynthesis in the bones of men plays a(More)
Aromatase, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of androgens to estrogens, is present in the mouse gonads, brain, adipose tissue and bone. Depletion of endogenous estrogens in the aromatase deficient mouse (ArKO) caused by the targeted disruption of the Cyp19 gene resulted in an impairment of sexual behaviour and an age-dependent disruption of(More)
Aromatase is the enzyme which catalyses the conversion of C19 steroids into C18 estrogens. We have generated a mouse model wherein the Cyp19 gene, which encodes aromatase, has been disrupted, and hence, the aromatase knockout (ArKO) mouse cannot synthesise endogenous estrogens. We examined the consequences of estrogen deficiency on accumulation of adipose(More)
The goal of this study was to investigate the activity of the selective MEK1/2 inhibitor TAK-733 in both melanoma cell lines and patient-derived melanoma xenograft models. In vitro cell proliferation assays using the sulforhodamine B assay were conducted to determine TAK-733 potency and melanoma responsiveness. In vivo murine modeling with eleven(More)
Aurora A kinase and MEK inhibitors induce different, and potentially complementary, effects on the cell cycle of malignant cells, suggesting a rational basis for utilizing these agents in combination. In this work, the combination of an Aurora A kinase and MEK inhibitor was evaluated in pre-clinical colorectal cancer models, with a focus on identifying a(More)