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BACKGROUND Several studies support the need for effective interventions to reduce HIV transmission risk behaviors among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). DESIGN Cross-sectional nationally representative demographic health survey of Kenya (2003) and Malawi (2004-2005) that included HIV testing for consenting adults. METHODS We analyzed demographic(More)
PROBLEM As national antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes scale-up, it is essential that information is complete, timely and accurate for site monitoring and national planning. The accuracy and completeness of reports independently compiled by ART facilities, however, is often not known. APPROACH This study assessed the quality of quarterly aggregate(More)
This study was conducted to identify reasons for a high and progressive loss to follow-up among HIV-positive mothers within a prevention-of-mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) program in a rural district hospital in Malawi. Three focus group discussions were conducted among a total of 25 antenatal and post-natal mothers as well as nurse midwives(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the human resources impact of Malawis rapidly growing antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme and balance this against the survival benefit of health-care workers who have accessed ART themselves. METHODS We conducted a national cross-sectional survey of the human resource allocation in all public-sector health facilities providing ART(More)
BACKGROUND To report on the trend in all-cause mortality in a rural district of Malawi that has successfully scaled-up HIV/AIDS care including antiretroviral treatment (ART) to its population, through corroborative evidence from a) registered deaths at traditional authorities (TAs), b) coffin sales and c) church funerals. METHODS AND FINDINGS(More)
BACKGROUND Long term retention of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Africa's rapidly expanding programmes is said to be 60% at 2 years. Many reports from African ART programmes make little mention of patients who are transferred out to another facility, yet Malawi's national figures show a transfer out of 9%. There is no published information(More)
BACKGROUND Approximately 1 million people are infected with HIV in Malawi, where AIDS is the leading cause of death in adults. By December 31, 2007, more than 141,000 patients were initiated on antiretroviral treatment (ART) by use of a public health approach to scale up HIV services. METHODS We analyzed national quarterly and longitudinal cohort data(More)
BACKGROUND Malawi started rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 2004 and by December 2006 had initiated 81,821 patients on treatment in the public sector. Owing to capacity constraints, standard patient care, treatment initiation and follow up are based on World Health Organization (WHO) clinical staging and do not provide laboratory monitoring(More)
The national scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Malawi is based on the public health approach, with principles and practices borrowed from the successful DOTS (directly observed treatment, short course) tuberculosis control framework. The key principles include political commitment, free care, and standardized systems for case finding, treatment,(More)
A retrospective review was conducted of patients starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) at Mzuzu Central Hospital, Malawi, to identify those who developed tuberculosis (TB) within 6 months of commencing ART and document their treatment outcomes. Of 2933 patients, 22 (0.75%) developed active TB, 17 (77%) of whom had commenced ART as a result of unexplained(More)