Kejia Cai

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Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate are implicated in numerous neuropsychiatric and substance abuse conditions, but their spectral overlap with other resonances makes them a challenge to quantify in humans. Gabapentin, marketed for the treatment of seizures and neuropathic pain, has been shown to increase in vivo GABA concentration in the brain of(More)
Myo-Inositol (MI) is one of the most abundant metabolites in the human brain located mainly in glial cells and functions as an osmolyte. The concentration of MI is altered in many brain disorders including Alzheimer's disease and brain tumors. Currently available magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) methods for measuring MI are limited to low spatial(More)
Glutamate, a major neurotransmitter in the brain, shows a pH- and concentration-dependent chemical exchange saturation transfer effect (GluCEST) between its amine group and bulk water, with potential for in vivo imaging by nuclear magnetic resonance. GluCEST asymmetry is observed ∼3 p.p.m. downfield from bulk water. Middle cerebral artery occlusion in the(More)
In the current study, we aim to measure T1rho (T (1ρ)) in the hippocampus in the brain of control, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and PD patients with dementia (PDD), and to determine efficacy of T (1ρ) in differentiating these cohorts. With informed consent, 53 AD patients, 62 PD patients, 11 PDD patients, and 46 age-matched controls(More)
BACKGROUND The need of an early and noninvasive diagnosis of AD requires the development of imaging-based techniques. As an alternative, the magnetic resonance image (MRI) relaxation time constant (T1ρ) was measured in brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild-cognitive impairment (MCI), and age-matched controls in order to determine whether T1ρ values(More)
Increased expression of cathepsins has diagnostic as well as prognostic value in several types of cancer. Here, we demonstrate a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method, which uses poly-L-glutamate (PLG) as an MRI probe to map cathepsin expression in vivo, in a rat brain tumor model. This noninvasive, high-resolution and non-radioactive method(More)
PURPOSE Spin lattice relaxation time in rotating frame (T1ρ) mapping of human knee cartilage has shown promise in detecting biochemical changes during osteoarthritis. Due to higher field strength, MRI at 7T has advantages in term of SNR compared to clinical MR scanners and this can be used to increase in image resolution. Objective of current study was to(More)
Glutamate (Glu) is a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and has been shown to decrease in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using a glutamate chemical (amine) exchange saturation transfer (GluCEST) method, we imaged the change in [Glu] in the APP-PS1 transgenic mouse model of AD at high spatial resolution. Compared with wild-type(More)
In vivo measurement of glutamate (Glu) in brain subcortex can elucidate the role these structures play in cognition and neuropsychiatric disorders. However, accurate quantification of Glu in subcortical regions is challenging. Recently, a novel MRI method based on the Glu chemical exchange saturation transfer (GluCEST) effect has been developed for(More)
BACKGROUND Dilated brain perivascular spaces (PVSs) are found to be associated with many conditions, including aging, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Conventionally, PVS assessment is mainly based on subjective observations of the number, size and shape of PVSs in MR images collected at clinical field strengths (≤3T). This study tests the(More)