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Ontogeny of the cholecystokinin-8 (CCK) neuron system in the forebrain and upper brainstem of the rat was investigated by means of indirect immunofluorescence. CCK cells and fibers first appeared in the developing ventral tegmental area and in the primordium of the medial forebrain bundle, respectively, at gestational day 15 (12-14-mm embryos). From that(More)
Stroke is an important issue in public health due to its high rates both of morbidity and mortality, and high rate of disability. Hypertension, cardiovascular disease, arterial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and alcohol abuse are all risk factors for stroke. Clinical observations suggest that inflammation is also a direct risk factor for stroke.(More)
The present study demonstrated numerous LH-RH--positive structures in the paddy-bird (padda orizivora) retina. LH-RH-positive cells were seen in the ganglion cell layer (GL), inner plexiform layer (IPL) and inner nuclear layer (INL). Judging from the morphological features, the former two types of cells may belong to the displaced amacrine cells and the(More)
Recently, people have used dietary supplements not only for nutritional supplementation, but also for treatment of their diseases. However, use of dietary supplements to treat diseases, especially with medications, may cause health problems in patients. In this study, we investigated use of dietary supplements in patients in Japan. This survey was conducted(More)
Malignant stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (M-SHRSP) develop hypertension and stroke at earlier ages than do nonmalignant SHRSP. Our previous findings suggested that reactive oxygen species were involved in the development of stroke in this strain. Nitric oxide (NO) which is more released at ischemia, might play a crucial role in stroke(More)
OBJECTIVE Dietary supplement use has increased over past decades, resulting in reports of potentially serious adverse events. The aim of this study was to develop optimised methods to evaluate the causal relationships between adverse events and dietary supplements, and to test these methods using case reports. DESIGN Causal relationship assessment using(More)
Saw palmetto extract (SPE), an extract from the ripe berries of the American dwarf palm, has been widely used as a therapeutic remedy for urinary dysfunction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in Europe. Numerous mechanisms of action have been proposed for SPE, including the inhibition of 5alpha-reductase. Today, alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists and(More)
When provided concurrently with soy protein for 1-3 months, soy isoflavones exert synergistic or additive cholesterol-lowering effects. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of extracted soy isoflavones alone (not ingested concurrently with soy protein) on total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. MEDLINE (1966-2007), EMBASE(More)
BACKGROUND Dietary supplements are used by >50% of the adult population in Japan, and adverse events related to these products have been reported with their increased use. Thus, an efficient system to gather and report data on these adverse events is essential. To date, however, reporting has been limited. The aim of this study was to address this(More)