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The descending projection of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) to the sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs) in the upper thoracic cord of the rat was studied. PVN-fibers were labeled by anterograde transport of Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L), while SPNs were retrogradely labeled with cholera toxin subunit B (CTb) which was(More)
In this study, the proteins contained in royal jelly (RJ) produced by Africanized honeybees and European honeybees (Apis mellifera) haven been analyzed in detail and compared using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and the N-terminal amino acid sequence of each spot has been determined. Most spots were assigned to major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs).(More)
Interferon-γ-inducing factor/interleukin-18 is a novel cytokine that reportedly augments natural killer (NK) activity in human and mouse peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures in vitro and has recently been designated IL-18. In this study, IL-18 exhibited significant antitumor effects in BALB/c mice challenged intraperitoneally (i.p.) with syngeneic(More)
We have recently shown that royal jelly has potent antiallergic properties in a mouse model of immediate hypersensitivity. However, it is still unclear which components of royal jelly exhibit antiallergic activity. In this study, we have screened for antiallergic factors in royal jelly based on inhibition of IL-4 production by anti-CD3 stimulated spleen(More)
The cranial meninges of the goldfish were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy combined with the freeze-fracturing technique. The goldfish has three cranial meninges. The outer layer consists of flattened cells, which are stratified in 3 to 7 layers and are packed densely with many interdigitations of cell processes. The constituent cells in(More)
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells and fibers were examined by immunohistochemistry in the chick spinal cord. TH-positive cells, which were located in laminae I, V and X, were most frequently found in the rostral part of the cervical spinal cord, with fewer cells being found in more caudal levels of the spinal cord. TH-positive cells located in lamina(More)
A ladder-like pattern of distribution of sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs) was compared with that of monoaminergic terminals in the upper thoracic spinal cord of the rat. SPNs were identified by a retrograde labeling with cholera toxin subunit B (CTb) injected into the superior cervical ganglia of both sides. Monoaminergic terminals were stained(More)
The present study was undertaken using retrograde labeling techniques to clarify whether the neurons in the dorsal hypothalamic area (DHA) that project to the spinal cord are the same as those that project to the nucleus raphé pallidus (NRP). Following an injection of wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) in the NRP many labeled(More)
Accumulating evidence suggests that nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) are involved in the pathogenesis of various chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. During the course of a screening program to identify natural anti-inflammatory substances, we isolated the compound 2-amino-3H-phenoxazin-3-one (APO) from an extract of the edible brown(More)
A combination of retrograde cell body labeling and immunohistochemistry was employed to elucidate how oxytocinergic fibers make contact with sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs) in the rat spinal cord from T1 to T4. SPNs were labeled retrogradely using cholera toxin subunit B (CTb) or horseradish peroxidase-conjugated CTb. Oxytocin-immunoreactive (ir)(More)