Keith W Macrenaris

Learn More
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool for acquiring images of opaque living animals with the benefit of tracking events over extended periods of time on the same specimen. Contrast agents are used to enhance regions, tissues, and cells that are magnetically similar but histologically distinct. A principal barrier to the development of MRI(More)
A Gd(III)-nanodiamond conjugate [Gd(III)-ND] was prepared and characterized, enabling detection of nanodiamonds by MR imaging. The Gd(III)-ND particles significantly reduced the T(1) of water protons with a per-Gd(III) relaxivity of 58.82 +/- 1.18 mM(-1) s(-1) at 1.5 T (60 MHz). This represents a 10-fold increase compared to the monomer Gd(III) complex(More)
A series of contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) aimed at noninvasively determining the hormone receptor status of cancer in vitro was developed. These MRI contrast agents were prepared by conjugating progesterone to clinically used Gd(III) chelates. These agents exhibited higher progesterone receptor binding affinities in the nanomolar(More)
A PCN theranostic platform comprises a doxorubicin (DXR)-loaded liposomal core and an acid-sensitive polymer shell that is functionalized with Herceptin and GdIII-based MRI contrast agents. In vitro testing reveals a 14-fold increase in DXR-based cytotoxicity versus a non-targeted analogue and an 120-fold improvement in cellular GdIII-uptake in comparison(More)
Evidence suggests that chronic low level cadmium exposure impairs the function of insulin-producing β cells and may be associated with type-2 diabetes mellitus. Herein, we describe the cadmium content in primary human islets and define the uptake kinetics and effects of environmentally relevant cadmium concentrations in cultured β cells. The average cadmium(More)
The inability to transduce cellular membranes is a limitation of current magnetic resonance imaging probes used in biologic and clinical settings. This constraint confines contrast agents to extracellular and vascular regions of the body, drastically reducing their viability for investigating processes and cycles in developmental biology. Conversely, a(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a technique used in both clinical and experimental settings to produce high-resolution images of opaque organisms without ionizing radiation. Currently, MR imaging is augmented by contrast agents, and the vast majority these small molecule Gd(III) chelates are confined to the extracellular regions. As a result, contrast(More)
Gd(III) associated with carbon nanomaterials relaxes water proton spins at an effectiveness that approaches or exceeds the theoretical limit for a single bound water molecule. These Gd(III)-labeled materials represent a potential breakthrough in sensitivity for Gd(III)-based contrast agents used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, their mechanism(More)