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Changes in synaptic strength are believed to underlie learning and memory. We explore the idea that norepinephrine is an essential modulator of memory through its ability to regulate synaptic mechanisms. Emotional arousal leads to activation of the locus coeruleus with the subsequent release of norepineprine in the brain, resulting in the enhancement of(More)
Synaptic rules that may determine the interaction between coexisting forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) at glutamatergic central synapses remain unknown. Here, we show that two mechanistically distinct forms of LTP could be induced in thalamic input to the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) with an identical presynaptic stimulation protocol, depending(More)
Emotional arousal, linked to a surge of norepinephrine (NE) in the amygdala, leads to creation of stronger and longer-lasting memories. However, little is known about the synaptic mechanisms of such modulatory NE influences. Long-term potentiation (LTP) in auditory inputs to the lateral nucleus of the amygdala was recently linked to the acquisition of fear(More)
Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of learned and innate fear. We have identified stathmin, an inhibitor of microtubule formation, as highly expressed in the lateral nucleus (LA) of the amygdala as well as in the thalamic and cortical structures that send information to the LA about the conditioned (learned fear) and unconditioned stimuli(More)
We report that intracellular calcium levels rise in mammalian neurosecretory terminals and in cultured pheochromocytoma cells during acute exposure to physiological medium incubated in IV drip chambers. The agent responsible for this effect is shown to be di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). DEHP (800 nM) added to saline solution caused a rise in [Ca(2+)](i)(More)
Selective activation of neuronal functions by Ca(2+) is determined by the kinetic profile of the intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) signal in addition to its amplitude. Concurrent electrophysiology and ratiometric calcium imaging were used to measure transmembrane Ca(2+) current and the resulting rise and decay of [Ca(2+)](i) in differentiated(More)
Chronic ethanol exposure increases the density of N-type calcium channels in brain. We report that ethanol increases levels of mRNA for a splice variant of the N channel specific subunit alpha1 2.2 that lacks exon 31a. Whole cell recordings demonstrated an increase in N-type current with a faster activation rate and a shift in activation to more negative(More)
Selective activation of neuronal functions by Ca is determined by the kinetic profile of the intracellular calcium ([Ca]i) signal, in addition to its amplitude. Concurrent electrophysiology and ratiometric calcium imaging were used to measure transmembrane Ca current and the resulting rise and decay of [Ca]i in differentiated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells.(More)
Meeting food security requirements in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) will require increasing fertilizer use to improve crop yields, however excess fertilization can cause environmental and public health problems in surface and groundwater. Determining the threshold of reasonable fertilizer application in SSA requires an understanding of flow dynamics and nutrient(More)
Calcium ions (Ca ) are involved in almost all neuronal fuctions, providing the link between electrcal signals and cellular activity. This work examines the mechanisms by which a neuron can regulate the movement and sequestration of Ca 2+ through specific channels such that this ubiquitous ion can encode specific functions. My initial focus was using(More)