Keith Short

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The influence of oxygen partial pressure during the deposition of piezoelectric strontium-doped lead zirconate titanate thin films is reported. The thin films have been deposited by RF magnetron sputtering in an atmosphere of high purity argon and oxygen (in the ratio of 9:1), on platinum-coated silicon substrates (heated to 650 degrees C). The influence of(More)
This article introduces a technique for observing and quantifying the piezoelectric response of thin films, using standard atomic force microscopes (AFMs). The technique has been developed and verified using strontium-doped lead zirconate titanate (PSZT) thin films, which are known for their high piezoelectric response. Quantification of the(More)
This article discusses the results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-based characterization of strontium-doped lead zirconate titanate (PSZT) thin films. The thin films were deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at 300 degrees C on gold-coated silicon substrates, which used a 15 nm titanium adhesion layer between the 150 nm thick gold(More)
While most processes in biology are highly deterministic, stochastic mechanisms are sometimes used to increase cellular diversity, such as in the specification of sensory receptors. In the human and Drosophila eye, photoreceptors sensitive to various wavelengths of light are distributed randomly across the retina. Mechanisms that underlie stochastic cell(More)
Ion implantation, because it is inherently a strongly nonequilibrium process, can add a new dimension to materials studies. A large variety of chemical elements may be readily introduced into a target substrate by ion bombardment at concentrations considerably greater than the normal solid solubilities. In addition, the interaction of the accelerated ions(More)
Standard metallography and optical microscopy are well established techniques for the characterization of duplex stainless steels (DSS), which consist of approximately 50% ferrite and 50% austenite. Recently, the use of atomic and magnetic force microscopies (AFM and MFM respectively) have been employed to differentiate between magnetic and non magnetic(More)
Single-pulse and cw measurements of the response of a semi-insulating CdZnTe/ZnTe multiple-quantum-well photorefractive device are presented. In single-pulse experiments, photodiffractive (absorption) gratings have been written with less than 1.8-microJ/cm(2) incident fluence, and a diffraction efficiency of 1.1% is obtained from the 1.56-microm active(More)
This article discusses the results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-based investigation of nickel silicide (NiSi) thin films grown on silicon. Nickel silicide is currently used as the CMOS technology standard for local interconnects and in electrical contacts. Films were characterized with a range of TEM-based techniques along with glancing angle(More)
This article reports on the in situ analysis of nickel silicide (NiSi) thin films formed by thermal processing of nickel thin films deposited on silicon substrates. The in situ techniques employed for this study include micro-Raman spectroscopy (microRS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD); in both cases the variations for temperatures up to 350 degrees C has been(More)
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