Keith S Reid

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The diet and reproductive performance of two sympatric penguin species were studied at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands between 1997 and 2001. Each year, Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae) and chinstrap (P. antarctica) penguins fed almost exclusively (>99% by mass) on Antarctic krill; however, there was considerable inter-annual variation in reproductive output.(More)
The Scotia Sea ecosystem is a major component of the circumpolar Southern Ocean system, where productivity and predator demand for prey are high. The eastward-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and waters from the Weddell-Scotia Confluence dominate the physics of the Scotia Sea, leading to a strong advective flow, intense eddy activity and mixing.(More)
Determining how climate fluctuations affect ocean ecosystems requires an understanding of how biological and physical processes interact across a wide range of scales. Here we examine the role of physical and biological processes in generating fluctuations in the ecosystem around South Georgia in the South Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. Anomalies in(More)
Sea surface temperature (SST) time-series from the southwest Atlantic and the El Niño 4 region in the western Pacific were compared to an index of annual calving success of the southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) breeding in Argentina. There was a strong relationship between right whale calving output and SST anomalies at South Georgia in the autumn(More)
The diet of lactating female Antarctic fur sealsArctocephalus gazella at South Georgia was investigated during the pup-rearing period (January/March) of 1991–1994. Antarctic krillEuphausia superba was the main prey item, occurring in 88% of all scats (n=497), whereas fish occurred in 47% and squid in 5% of all scats. There was considerable intra- and(More)
Procellariiform seabirds (petrels, albatrosses and shearwaters) forage over thousands of square kilometres for patchily distributed prey resources. While these birds are known for their large olfactory bulbs and excellent sense of smell, how they use odour cues to locate prey patches in the vast ocean is not well understood. Here, we investigate(More)
The ecosystem approach to fisheries recognises the interdependence between harvested species and other ecosystem components. It aims to account for the propagation of the effects of harvesting through the food-web. The formulation and evaluation of ecosystem-based management strategies requires reliable models of ecosystem dynamics to predict these effects.(More)
Knowledge of the spatial and temporal dynamics of foraging penguins is important to our understanding of the Southern Ocean marine ecosystem. We use satellite tracking to provide the first data on the distribution and behaviour of gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) during the winter at South Georgia. Five penguins tracked from Bird Island remained close(More)
The Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) is bound by its Article II, 3 to follow an ecosystem approach to management. This approach has been extended to the application of a precautionary approach in the late 1980s. In our review, we deal primarily with the science-related aspects of CCAMLR and its development(More)
Variability is a key feature of the pelagic ecosystems of the Southern Ocean and an important aspect of the variation is fluctuation in the abundance of krill Euphausia superba Dana, the major prey item of many of the higher predators. Direct impacts of variability in the large-scale physical environment, such as changes in ocean circulation, have been(More)