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Chromosome counts in meiotic metaphase plates in the gonads of 67 of the probable 68 species of mimetic neotropical heliconian butterflies (Nymphalidae), representing 1524 individuals in 617 subspecies and geographically separate populations from southern Texas to northern Argentina, revealed a consistent haploid number of n = 21 in the genus Heliconius(More)
Larvae of the ithomiine butterflyPlacidula euryanassa sequester tropane alkaloids (TAs) from the host plantBrugmansia suaveolens and pass them through the pupae to freshly emerged adults. Wild caught adults also show in their tissues, variable amounts of pyrrolidizine alkaloids (PAs), probably sequestered from variable plant sources and subject to dynamics(More)
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), acquired by adults or larvae of Danainae and Ithomiinae butterflies and Arctiidae moths from plants, protect these lepidopterans against predators and are biosynthetic precursors of male sex pheromones. The investigation of PAs in many species of wild-caught adults of Ithomiinae showed lycopsamine (1) [(7R)-OH, (2′S)-OH,(More)
A generic-level phylogeny for the butterfly family Nymphalidae was produced by cladistic analysis of 234 characters from all life stages. The 95 species in the matrix (selected from the 213 studied) represent all important recognized lineages within this family. The analysis showed the taxa grouping into six main lineages. The basal branch is the(More)
Sustainable use of tropical forest systems requires continuous monitoring of biological diversity and ecosystem functions. This can be efficiently done with ‘early warning‘ (short-cycle) indicator groups of non-economical insects, whose population levels and resources are readily measured. Twenty-one groups of insects are evaluated as focal indicator taxa(More)
A comparative study of butterfly communities in 15 urban/suburban remnants of tropical semideciduous forest in Campinas (São Paulo state, SE Brazil; 24°S, 47°W), with areas from 1.0 to 252 ha and widely varying histories and environments, shows that the most significant factors, besides area and sampling time, distinguishing the sites and influencing their(More)
The primitive, Apocynaceae-feeding Ithomiine,Tithorea harmonia, incorporates dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from its larval foodplant (Prestonia acutifolia), rarely visiting PA sources pharmacophagously in the adult; females show higher concentrations of PAs than males, with similar variance. The close relativeAeria olena (feeding onP. coalita,(More)
Nowadays 37% of Earth’s ice-free land is composed by fragments of natural habitats settled in anthropogenic biomes. Therefore, we have to improve our knowledge about distribution of organisms in remnants and to understand how the matrix affects these distributions. In this way, the present study aims to describe the structure of the butterfly assemblages(More)
The tribe Acraeini (Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae) is believed to comprise between one and seven genera, with the greatest diversity in Africa. The genera Abananote, Altinote, and Actinote (s. str.) are distributed in the Neotropics, while the genera Acraea, Bematistes, Miyana, and Pardopsis have a Palaeotropical distribution. The monotypic Pardopsis use(More)