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The variations in fixation disparity (FD) with spatial frequency and retinal locus of fusion locks were examined in two groups of subjects having either steep or flat forced-duction FD curves. FD for subjects with flat curves was unaffected by either spatial frequency or diameter of fusion locks. FD of observers with steep forced-duction curves increased(More)
It is now apparent that in men and in postmenopausal women, estrogens have important physiological and pathophysiological roles. However, importantly, these actions are at a local level, namely paracrine, autocrine, and even 'intracrine' rather than endocrine in the classical sense. Thus for example local estrogen biosynthesis in the bones of men plays a(More)
Natural (human) and experimental (mouse) models of estrogen insufficiency have revealed hitherto unexpected roles for estrogens in both males and females. In postmenopausal women, and in men, estrogen no longer has a major role as a circulating hormone, but rather it functions locally as a paracrine or even 'intracrine' factor in tissue sites where it is(More)
The initial velocity of the vergence response to step changes in disparity was examined in two subjects as a function of the retinal locus and spatial frequency of fusion stimuli. Vergence velocity decreased for both subjects as retinal eccentricity increased and it was unaffected by spatial frequency. The same subjects had very different amounts of(More)
Aromatase is the enzyme which catalyses the conversion of C19 steroids into C18 estrogens. We have generated a mouse model wherein the Cyp19 gene, which encodes aromatase, has been disrupted, and hence, the aromatase knockout (ArKO) mouse cannot synthesise endogenous estrogens. We examined the consequences of estrogen deficiency on accumulation of adipose(More)
Previous studies employing the male aromatase knockout (ArKO) mouse have indicated that local expression of estrogens appears to be important for the progression of spermatogenesis. In the absence of estrogen biosynthesis round spermatids are observed to undergo apoptosis and thus fail to differentiate into mature, elongated spermatids. This lesion appears(More)
Aromatase, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of androgens to estrogens, is present in the mouse gonads, brain, adipose tissue and bone. Depletion of endogenous estrogens in the aromatase deficient mouse (ArKO) caused by the targeted disruption of the Cyp19 gene resulted in an impairment of sexual behaviour and an age-dependent disruption of(More)
Visual training has an effect on the vertical vergence amplitudes. Three mature symptomatic patients exhibited a significant increase in the vertical vergence which compensates for the vertical heterophoria. Subjects with normal binocularity and hence no vertical heterophoria did not exhibit increased vertical vergence amplitudes after training.
A series of compounds based on the structure of bacilysin were synthesised and tested for antibacterial activity. The key steps in the syntheses are the coupling of an iodide to a diketopiperazine (DKP) and mono-lactim ether scaffold, respectively. The diastereoselectivity of the coupling reactions was dependant on the scaffold, with selectivity for DKP of(More)
Neural coding of reward-­‐prediction error signals during classical conditioning with attractive faces. (2008). Effect of post-­‐retrieval propranolol on psychophysiologic responding during subsequent script-­‐driven traumatic imagery in post-­‐traumatic stress disorder. (2008). Are attractive people rewarding? Sex differences in the neural substrates of(More)