Learn More
Mammalian nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs), such as liver X receptor, farnesoid X receptor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), precisely control energy metabolism. Consequently, these receptors are important targets for the treatment of metabolic diseases, including diabetes and obesity. A thorough understanding of NHR fat regulatory(More)
Glucocorticoids repress NFkappaB-mediated activation of proinflammatory genes such as interleukin-8 (IL-8) and ICAM-1. Our experiments suggest that the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) confers this effect by associating through protein-protein interactions with NFkappaB bound at each of these genes. That is, we show that the GR zinc binding region (ZBR), which(More)
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) associates with glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) and regulates selective gene transcription in a cell-specific manner. Native GREs are typically thought to be composite elements that recruit GR as well as other regulatory factors into functional complexes. We assessed whether GR occupancy is commonly a limiting(More)
Two crystal structures of the glucocorticoid receptor DNA-binding domain complexed with DNA are reported. The domain has a globular fold which contains two Zn-nucleated substructures of distinct conformation and function. When it binds DNA, the domain dimerizes, placing the subunits in adjacent major grooves. In one complex, the DNA has the symmetrical(More)
Glucocorticoid receptor protein stimulates transcription initiation within murine mammary tumor virus (MTV) DNA sequences in vivo, and interacts selectively with MTV DNA in vitro. We mapped and compared five regions of MTV DNA that are bound specifically by purified receptor; one resides upstream of the transcription start site, and the others are(More)
Upon binding of cortisol, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) regulates the transcription of specific target genes, including those that encode the stress hormones corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone. Dysregulation of the stress axis is a hallmark of major depression in human patients. However, it is still unclear how(More)
The mechanism by which a single factor evokes opposite regulatory effects from a specific DNA sequence is not well understood. In this study, a 25-base pair element that resides upstream of the mouse proliferin gene was examined; it conferred on linked promoters either positive or negative glucocorticoid regulation, depending upon physiological context.(More)
Selective gene transcription is mediated in part by regulatory proteins that bind to DNA response elements. These regulatory proteins receive global information from signal-transduction events. But transcriptional regulators may also be modified in an allosteric manner by response elements themselves to generate the pattern of regulation that is appropriate(More)
Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylate the rat glucocorticoid receptor in vitro at distinct sites that together correspond to the major phosphorylated receptor residues observed in vivo; MAPK phosphorylates receptor residues threonine 171 and serine 246, whereas multiple CDK complexes modify serines 224 and(More)