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Mammalian nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs), such as liver X receptor, farnesoid X receptor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), precisely control energy metabolism. Consequently, these receptors are important targets for the treatment of metabolic diseases, including diabetes and obesity. A thorough understanding of NHR fat regulatory(More)
Combinatorial regulation of transcription implies flexible yet precise assembly of multiprotein regulatory complexes in response to signals. Biochemical and crystallographic analyses revealed that hormone binding leads to the formation of a hydrophobic groove within the ligand binding domain (LBD) of the thyroid hormone receptor that interacts with an LxxLL(More)
Appropriate response to nutritional stress is critical for animal survival and metabolic health. To better understand regulatory networks that sense and respond to nutritional availability, we developed a quantitative RT-PCR strategy to monitor changes in metabolic gene expression resulting from short-term food deprivation (fasting) in Caenorhabditis(More)
We have detected nuclear localization signals within the 795 amino acid rat glucocorticoid receptor. Using a transient expression assay, we monitored by immunofluorescence the subcellular distribution of receptor derivatives and beta-galactosidase-receptor fusion proteins. Two distinct nuclear localization signals, NL1 and NL2, were defined. NL1 maps to a(More)
Two crystal structures of the glucocorticoid receptor DNA-binding domain complexed with DNA are reported. The domain has a globular fold which contains two Zn-nucleated substructures of distinct conformation and function. When it binds DNA, the domain dimerizes, placing the subunits in adjacent major grooves. In one complex, the DNA has the symmetrical(More)
Circadian clock genes are regulated by glucocorticoids; however, whether this regulation is a direct or secondary effect and the physiological consequences of this regulation were unknown. Here, we identified glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) at multiple clock genes and showed that 3 were directly regulated by the glucocorticoid receptor. We(More)
Genes are not simply turned on or off, but instead their expression is fine-tuned to meet the needs of a cell. How genes are modulated so precisely is not well understood. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) regulates target genes by associating with specific DNA binding sites, the sequences of which differ between genes. Traditionally, these binding sites(More)
The mechanism by which a single factor evokes opposite regulatory effects from a specific DNA sequence is not well understood. In this study, a 25-base pair element that resides upstream of the mouse proliferin gene was examined; it conferred on linked promoters either positive or negative glucocorticoid regulation, depending upon physiological context.(More)
Glucocorticoids repress NFkappaB-mediated activation of proinflammatory genes such as interleukin-8 (IL-8) and ICAM-1. Our experiments suggest that the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) confers this effect by associating through protein-protein interactions with NFkappaB bound at each of these genes. That is, we show that the GR zinc binding region (ZBR), which(More)