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The blue-light photoreceptor photoactive yellow protein (PYP) undergoes a self-contained light cycle. The atomic structure of the bleached signaling intermediate in the light cycle of PYP was determined by millisecond time-resolved, multiwavelength Laue crystallography and simultaneous optical spectroscopy. Light-induced trans-to-cis isomerization of the(More)
Light sensing by photoreceptors controls phototropism, chloroplast movement, stomatal opening, and leaf expansion in plants. Understanding the molecular mechanism by which these processes are regulated requires a quantitative description of photoreceptor dynamics. We focus on a light-driven signal transduction mechanism in the LOV2 domain (LOV, light,(More)
For single-cell and multicellular systems to survive, they must accurately sense and respond to their cellular and extracellular environment. Light is a nearly ubiquitous environmental factor, and many species have evolved the capability to respond to this extracellular stimulus. Numerous photoreceptors underlie the activation of light-sensitive signal(More)
In this study we describe a 239-kb region on the long arm of rice chromosome 10 that contains a high density (71%) of locally duplicated genes, including 24 copies of a glutathione S-transferase gene. Intriguingly, embedded within this cluster is a large insertion (~33 kb) of rice (Oryza sativa) chloroplast DNA that is derived from two separate regions of(More)
An understanding of how allostery, the conformational coupling of distant functional sites, arises in highly evolvable systems is of considerable interest in areas ranging from cell biology to protein design and signaling networks. We reasoned that the rigidity and defined geometry of an alpha-helical domain linker would make it effective as a conduit for(More)
Bacteriophytochromes RpBphP2 and RpBphP3 from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris work in tandem to modulate synthesis of the light-harvesting complex LH4 in response to light. Although RpBphP2 and RpBphP3 share the same domain structure with 52% sequence identity, they demonstrate distinct photoconversion behaviors. RpBphP2 exhibits the(More)
Aureochrome1, a signaling photoreceptor from a eukaryotic photosynthetic stramenopile, confers blue-light-regulated DNA binding on the organism. Its topology, in which a C-terminal LOV sensor domain is linked to an N-terminal DNA-binding bZIP effector domain, contrasts with the reverse sensor-effector topology in most other known LOV-photoreceptors. How,(More)
Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) domains serve as versatile sensor and interaction modules in signal transduction proteins. PAS sensors detect chemical and physical stimuli and regulate the activity of functionally diverse effector domains. In contrast to this chemical, physical, and functional diversity, the structure of the core of PAS domains is broadly conserved and(More)
The phototropins are flavoprotein kinases that control phototropic bending, light-induced chloroplast movement, and stomatal opening in plants. Two flavin mononucleotide binding light, oxygen, or voltage (LOV) domains are the sites for initial photochemistry in these blue light photoreceptors. We have determined the steady state, photoexcited crystal(More)
Phytochromes are red-light photoreceptors that regulate light responses in plants, fungi, and bacteria via reversible photoconversion between red (Pr) and far-red (Pfr) light-absorbing states. Here we report the crystal structure at 2.9 A resolution of a bacteriophytochrome from Pseudomonas aeruginosa with an intact, fully photoactive photosensory core(More)