Keith R. Millington

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Fibrous proteins discolor on exposure to the UV component of sunlight. This effect is exacerbated in the presence of fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs), which are often applied to textiles to improve product brightness. Tryptophan photoproducts have been identified as significant contributors to protein photoyellowing; however, the role of(More)
One of the current concerns with the application of nanoparticles in sunscreens, and in particular nano-TiO2 and ZnO, is their potential to photogenerate free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) when they absorb ultraviolet wavelengths from sunlight. Free radicals and ROS are known to be associated with UV-induced skin damage and oxidative stress,(More)
The wool fibre has a complex morphology, consisting of an outer layer of cuticle scales surrounding an inner cortex. These two components are hard to separate effectively except by using harsh chemical treatments, making it difficult to determine the susceptibility of the different components of the fibre to photoyellowing. An approach to this problem based(More)
Photo-oxidation of proteinaceous fibres correlates directly to lowered appearance retention and performance, with particular commercial significance for wool and human hair. We here outline the first detailed proteomic evaluation of differential photo-oxidation occurring in the cuticle and cortex of wool fibres. After exposure of whole wool to UVB(More)
A silk cocoon protects a silkworm during its pupal stage from various threats. We systematically investigated the role of fiber, sericin, and embedded crystals in the UV protection of a silk cocoon. Diffuse reflectance and UV absorbance were measured and free radicals generated during exposure to UV radiation were quantified using photoinduced(More)
The presence of copper and iron in metal-doped wool has been shown previously to be associated with the production of free radicals and yellowing in photo-irradiated wool. In this study, the yellowness and trace metal content of 700 wool samples was measured to determine if photoyellowing, catalysed by metals, is a major determinant of the colour of fleece(More)
Several previous studies have reported luminescence emission from skin following exposure to UVA radiation in air. We show that UVA irradiation of biomaterials and polymers in oxygen, including bovine stratum corneum, followed by photon counting results in a complex emission due to a combination of photophysical processes together with photo-induced(More)
Thermal luminescence (TL) spectra of polyamides were measured with a Fourier-transform chemiluminescence spectrometer to elucidate the emission mechanism. A TL band of ε-polylysine with a peak at 542 nm observed at 403 K was assigned to the emission due to the interaction of the -CO-NH- group with oxygen molecules by comparison with nylon-6, polyglycine,(More)
The application of fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) significantly accelerates the photoyellowing of wool and silk under exposure to the ultraviolet and visible components of sunlight <500 nm. The photochemistry involved in this process is poorly understood, particularly the role of photoproducts derived directly from the FWA itself. Hydroxylation was(More)