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The fish gill is a multipurpose organ that, in addition to providing for aquatic gas exchange, plays dominant roles in osmotic and ionic regulation, acid-base regulation, and excretion of nitrogenous wastes. Thus, despite the fact that all fish groups have functional kidneys, the gill epithelium is the site of many processes that are mediated by renal(More)
The transcription factor SKN-1 protects Caenorhabditis elegans from stress and promotes longevity. SKN-1 is regulated by diverse signals that control metabolism, development, and stress responses, but the mechanisms of regulation and signal integration are unknown. We screened the C. elegans genome for regulators of cytoprotective gene expression and(More)
Both Na+/H+ exchange and the electrogenic extrusion of H+ via an H+-ATPase have been postulated to drive acid excretion across the branchial epithelium of fishes. While the H+-ATPase/Na+ channel system appears to be the predominant mechanism in some freshwater species, it may play a reduced role in seawater and brackish-water animals, where high external(More)
The dogfish (Squalus acanthias) can make rapid adjustments to gill acid-base transfers to compensate for internal acidosis/alkalosis. Branchial Na+/H+ exchange (NHE) has been postulated as one mechanism driving the excretion of H+ following acidosis. We have cloned gill cDNA that includes an open reading frame coding for a 770-residue protein most(More)
As adults, anadromous lampreys migrate from seawater into freshwater rivers, where they require branchial ion (NaCl) absorption for osmoregulation. In teleosts and elasmobranchs, pharmological, immunohistochemical, and molecular data support roles for Na+/K+-ATPase (NPPase), carbonic anhydrase II (CAII), and vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) in two different(More)
Proteostasis is defined as the homeostatic mechanisms that maintain the function of all cytoplasmic proteins. We recently demonstrated that the capacity of the proteostasis network is a critical factor that defines the limits of cellular and organismal survival in hypertonic environments. The current studies were performed to determine the extent of protein(More)
Cyclooxygenase (COX) produces prostaglandins in animals via the oxidation and reduction of arachidonic acid. Different types and numbers of COX genes have been found in corals, sea squirts, fishes, and tetrapods, but no study has used a comparative phylogenetic approach to investigate the evolutionary history of this complex gene family. Therefore, to(More)
Nematodes parasitize an alarming number of people and agricultural animals globally and cause debilitating morbidity and mortality. Anthelmintics have been the primary tools used to control parasitic nematodes for the past several decades, but drug resistance is becoming a major obstacle. Xenobiotic detoxification pathways defend against drugs and other(More)
High-throughput screening (HTS) is a powerful approach for identifying chemical modulators of biological processes. However, many compounds identified in screens using cell culture models are often found to be toxic or pharmacologically inactive in vivo(1-2). Screening in whole animal models can help avoid these pitfalls and streamline the path to drug(More)
In mammals, the Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) is expressed with Na+/K+-ATPase in renal proximal tubules, where it secretes H+ and absorbs Na+ to maintain blood pH and volume. In elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, and stingrays), the gills are the dominant site of pH and osmoregulation. This study was conducted to determine whether epithelial NHE homologs exist in(More)