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BACKGROUND Routine immunisation of infants in The Gambia with a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine began in May, 1997. We investigated the effectiveness of the vaccine when delivered through the expanded programme on immunisation and the effect of national immunisation on incidence of Hib disease. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Very little longitudinal information is available regarding the performance of T cell-based tests for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. To address this deficiency, we conducted a longitudinal assessment of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot test (ELISPOT) test in comparison to the standard tuberculin skin test (TST). METHODS AND FINDINGS(More)
BACKGROUND Resistance to cheap effective antimalarial drugs, especially to pyrimethaminesulphadoxine (Fansidar), is likely to have a striking impact on childhood mortality in sub-Sharan Africa. The use of artesunate (artesunic acid) [corrected] in combination with pyrimethamine-sulphadoxine may delay or prevent resistance. We investigated the efficacy,(More)
BACKGROUND New tools are required to improve tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment, including enhanced ability to compare new treatment strategies. The ELISPOT assay uses Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens to produce a precise quantitative readout of the immune response to pathogen. We hypothesized that TB patients in The Gambia would have(More)
BACKGROUND Studies of Tuberculosis (TB) case contacts are increasingly being utilised for understanding the relationship between M. tuberculosis and the human host and for assessing new interventions and diagnostic tests. We aimed to identify the incidence rate of new TB cases among TB contacts and to relate this to their initial Mantoux and ELISPOT test(More)
BACKGROUND Repeat tuberculin skin tests may be false positive due to boosting of waned immunity to past mycobacterial exposure. We evaluated whether an ELISPOT test could identify tuberculosis (TB) contacts with boosting of immunity to non-tuberculous mycobacterial exposure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We conducted tuberculin and ELISPOT tests in 1665(More)
INTRODUCTION Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is the leading cause of cancer in Uganda and occurs in people with and without HIV. Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) replication is important both in transmission of HHV-8 and progression to KS. We characterized the sites and frequency of HHV-8 detection in Ugandans with and without HIV and KS. METHODS Participants were(More)
BACKGROUND To increase access to antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings, several experts recommend "task shifting" from doctors to clinical officers, nurses and midwives. This study sought to identify task shifting that has already occurred and assess the antiretroviral therapy training needs among clinicians to whom tasks have shifted. (More)
BACKGROUND Pyridoxine is frequently used to treat capecitabine-induced hand-foot syndrome (HFS), although the evidence of benefit is lacking. We performed a randomised placebo-controlled trial to determine whether pyridoxine could avoid the need for capecitabine dose modifications and improve outcomes. METHODS A total of 106 patients planned for(More)
The NEAT trial reported considerable benefit for ECMF (epirubicin followed by cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil) of 28% for relapse-free survival (RFS) and 30% for overall survival (OS), when compared with classical CMF in early breast cancer. To assess tolerability, toxicity, dose intensity and quality of life (QoL) analyses were(More)