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The dogfish (Squalus acanthias) can make rapid adjustments to gill acid-base transfers to compensate for internal acidosis/alkalosis. Branchial Na+/H+ exchange (NHE) has been postulated as one mechanism driving the excretion of H+ following acidosis. We have cloned gill cDNA that includes an open reading frame coding for a 770-residue protein most(More)
Cells adapt to stressors by activating mechanisms that repair damage and protect them from further injury. Stress-induced damage accumulates with age and contributes to age associated diseases. Increased age attenuates the ability to mount a stress response, but little is known about the mechanisms by which this occurs. To begin addressing this problem, we(More)
In mammals, the Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) is expressed with Na+/K+-ATPase in renal proximal tubules, where it secretes H+ and absorbs Na+ to maintain blood pH and volume. In elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, and stingrays), the gills are the dominant site of pH and osmoregulation. This study was conducted to determine whether epithelial NHE homologs exist in(More)
Na(+)/H(+) exchangers (NHE) are a family of ion exchangers with diverse functions that are well defined in mammals. NHE-1 is expressed in the plasma membrane of most mammalian cells where it regulates intracellular pH, and usually in the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells. It has also been detected in teleost gills where it may participate in systemic(More)
High-throughput screening (HTS) is a powerful approach to drug discovery, but many lead compounds are found to be unsuitable for use in vivo after initial screening. Screening in small animals like C. elegans can help avoid these problems, but this system has been limited to screens with low-throughput or no specific molecular target. We report the first in(More)
Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) are critical to processes such as epithelial transport, membrane excitability, and signal transduction. Anoctamin, or TMEM16, is a family of 10 mammalian transmembrane proteins, 2 of which were recently shown to function as CaCCs. The functions of other family members have not been firmly established, and almost(More)
SKN-1/Nrf transcription factors activate cytoprotective genes in response to reactive small molecules and strongly influence stress resistance, longevity, and development. The molecular mechanisms of SKN-1/Nrf regulation are poorly defined. We previously identified the WD40 repeat protein WDR-23 as a repressor of Caenorhabditis elegans SKN-1 that functions(More)
The SKN-1/Nrf transcription factors are master regulators of oxidative stress responses and are emerging as important determinants of longevity. We previously identified a protein named WDR-23 as a direct repressor of SKN-1 in C. elegans. Loss of wdr-23 influences stress resistance, longevity, development, and reproduction, but it is unknown if WDR-23(More)
Exposure of C. elegans to hypertonic stress-induced water loss causes rapid and widespread cellular protein damage. Survival in hypertonic environments depends critically on the ability of worm cells to detect and degrade misfolded and aggregated proteins. Acclimation of C. elegans to mild hypertonic stress suppresses protein damage and increases survival(More)
SKN-1/Nrf are the primary antioxidant/detoxification response transcription factors in animals and they promote health and longevity in many contexts. SKN-1/Nrf are activated by a remarkably broad-range of natural and synthetic compounds and physiological conditions. Defining the signaling mechanisms that regulate SKN-1/Nrf activation provides insights into(More)