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Immune responses are normally targeted against microbial pathogens and not self-antigens by mechanisms that are only partly understood. Here we define a newly discovered pathway that prevents autoimmunity by limiting the levels on T lymphocytes of aco-stimulatory receptor, the inducible T-cell co-stimulator(ICOS). In sanroque mice homozygous for an M199R(More)
Regulation of gene expression is essential for the homeostasis of an organism, playing a pivotal role in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and response to specific stimuli. Multiple studies over the last two decades have demonstrated that the modulation of mRNA stability plays an important role in regulating gene expression. The stability of a given(More)
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is frequently overexpressed in cancer and is an important therapeutic target. Aberrant expression and function of microRNAs have been associated with tumorigenesis. Bioinformatic predictions suggest that the human EGFR mRNA 3'-untranslated region contains three microRNA-7 (miR-7) target sites, which are not(More)
The cell-killing effects of the cytokines TNF-alpha and FasL are mediated by the distinct cell-surface receptors TNFR1, TNFR2 and Fas (also known as CD95/APO-1), which are all members of a receptor superfamily that is important for regulating cell survival. The cytoplasmic regions of TNFR1 and Fas contain a conserved 'death' domain which is an essential(More)
The androgen receptor (AR) mediates androgen action and plays a central role in the proliferation of specific cancer cells. We demonstrated recently that AR mRNA stability is a major determinant of AR gene expression in prostate and breast cancer cells and that androgens differentially regulate AR mRNA decay dependent on cell type (Yeap, B. B., Kreuger, R.(More)
microRNA-7-5p (miR-7-5p) is a tumor suppressor in multiple cancer types and inhibits growth and invasion by suppressing expression and activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway. While melanoma is not typically EGFR-driven, expression of miR-7-5p is reduced in metastatic tumors compared to primary melanoma. Here, we(More)
Aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding regulatory RNAs, has been implicated in the development and progression of melanoma. However, the precise mechanistic role of many of these miRNAs remains unclear. We have investigated the functional role of miR-7-5p in melanoma, and demonstrate that miR-7-5p expression is reduced in(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and are aberrantly expressed in human cancer. The ERBB-2 tyrosine kinase receptor is frequently overexpressed in prostate cancer and is associated with disease progression and poor survival. We have identified two specific miR-331-3p target sites within the ERBB-2 mRNA(More)
The stability of RNAs bearing AU-rich elements in their 3'-UTRs, and thus the level of expression of their protein products, is regulated by interactions with cytoplasmic RNA-binding proteins. Binding by HuR generally leads to mRNA stabilization and increased protein production, whereas binding by AUF1 isoforms generally lead to rapid degradation of the(More)
Despite promoting growth in many cell types, epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces growth inhibition in a variety of cancer cells that overexpress its receptor. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1) is a central component of this pathway. We found in human MDA-468 breast cancer cells that EGF up-regulates p21(WAF1) mRNA and protein, through a(More)