Keith L. Shelton

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Stress and depression have been linked to relapse of cocaine abuse. Antagonism of the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) has been reported to attenuate some effects of stressors, and antagonism of the KOR has been reported to have antidepressant-like properties. Our objective was to determine whether the potent and selective KOR antagonist,(More)
Ethanol craving plays a major role in relapse drinking behavior. Relapse and ethanol craving are an important focus for the treatment of alcoholism. The ethanol-deprivation effect (EDE) is a widely used animal model of alcohol craving. While the EDE is widely studied in rats, the molecular mechanisms underlying EDE are not clearly understood. The C57BL/6(More)
Stress and renewed contact with drug (a "slip") have been linked to persisting relapse of methamphetamine abuse. Human brain microglial activation has been linked with methamphetamine abuse, and inhibitors of glial cell activation, certain phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors, and glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) have been reported to modulate(More)
Genetic analysis of factors affecting risk to develop excessive ethanol drinking has been extensively studied in humans and animal models for over 20 years. However, little progress has been made in determining molecular mechanisms underlying environmental or non-genetic events contributing to variation in ethanol drinking. Here, we identify persistent and(More)
Few studies exist exploring the discriminative stimulus effects of inhalants and none that have trained an interoceptive discrimination using the inhaled route. This study was designed to assess if it was possible to train an inhaled toluene discrimination. The second objective was to determine whether the discrimination was based on interoceptive or(More)
Despite widespread abuse, there are few validated methods to study the rewarding effects of inhalants. One model that may have utility for this purpose is intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). This study aims to compare and contrast the ICSS reward-facilitating effects of abused inhalants to other classes of abused drugs. Compounds were examined using two(More)
Because the toxicity of many inhalants precludes evaluation in humans, drug discrimination, an animal model of subjective effects, can be used to gain insights on their poorly understood abuse-related effects. The purpose of the present study was to train a prototypic inhalant that has known abuse liability, 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCE), as a discriminative(More)
Our understanding of the active role that astrocytes play in modulating neuronal function and behavior is rapidly expanding, but little is known about the role that astrocytes may play in drug-seeking behavior for commonly abused substances. Given that the nucleus accumbens is critically involved in substance abuse and motivation, we sought to determine(More)
BACKGROUND Ethanol (EtOH) is metabolized by a 2-step process in which alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) oxidizes EtOH to acetaldehyde, which is further oxidized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Although variation in EtOH metabolism in humans strongly influences the propensity to chronically abuse alcohol, few data exist on the behavioral effects of(More)
BACKGROUND Genetically altered mice have been used to examine gene contributions to ethanol phenotypes. Recently, mice with a targeted deletion of the delta subunit of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor have been generated. These mice display decreased sensitivity to neuroactive steroids and altered responses to some behavioral effects of ethanol.(More)