Keith L. Macmillan

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Cows with an extended interval from calving to first ovulation (PPI) have increased intervals from calving to conception and are more likely to be culled compared with cows with a short PPI. In year-round calving dairy herds, between 11 and 38% of cows are reported as anestrus by 50 or 60 d after calving. In seasonally calving dairy herds, between 13 and(More)
Synchronization programs have become standard components in the current breeding management of cows in the dairy herds of most dairy industries. Many are based on protocols that allow timed inseminations (TAI) so as to circumvent the practical difficulties associated with estrus detection. These difficulties are exacerbated in modern herds of high producing(More)
The purpose of this study was to reengineer a commercially available intravaginal insert containing 1.9 g progesterone (CIDR intravaginal insert) for a 7-day insertion period in cattle. The reengineering process resulted in a reduced initial drug load (1.38 g) and a reduction in the residual drug load following insertion, while at the same time maintaining(More)
In 3 separate trials at 2 locations, dairy heifers (n = 396) were treated with a Controlled Internal Drug Release (CIDR) progesterone device for 9 d. On Day 7 of CIDR treatment, all heifers were injected with PGF(2alpha). Synchronized estruses were detected using a tailpaint and chalk (TPC) scoring system. An animal's tailhead was painted at device(More)
Lactation has been negatively associated with fertility because pregnancy rates in maiden heifers exceed those obtained after first or subsequent calvings. The extent of this difference is less in pasture-fed dairy cows ( < 10%) than in American Holsteins ( > 20%) fed grain and conserved forages. The latter cows have pregnancy rates to first insemination(More)
The aim of this experiment was to quantify the milk production capacity of cows undergoing extended lactations while fed a pasture-based diet typical of those used in the seasonal-calving dairying systems of Victoria, Australia. One hundred twenty-five Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups. Breeding was progressively delayed after calving to(More)
The focus of this review is the physiological effects of undernutrition on ovarian follicle growth and the occurrence of ovulation in postpartum cows. Evidence suggests that moderate levels of underfeeding, before or after calving, may interfere with the mechanism(s) of final follicle maturation and ovulation, whereas more pronounced nutritional(More)
The wave-like patterns of ovarian follicular development in cattle can be manipulated by shortening the luteal phase with prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF), lengthening the period of follicle dominance with progesterone or curtailing follicle development with GnRH or oestradiol as 17beta, benzoate or cypionate. These hormones can also be used to synchronise(More)
Oestrus synchronization following prostaglandin-induced luteolysis is variable and dependent on follicle wave status in cattle. Oestradiol benzoate (ODB) has been used following prostaglandin to reduce the interval to oestrus and ovulation, but the effect of follicle wave status at the time of ODB administration is not clear. The aim of this study was to(More)
The aim of this study was to measure the effect of type of diet and level of energy intake on the performance of cows undergoing extended lactations. Ninety-six Holstein-Friesian cows that calved in July and August 2004 were assigned randomly to 1 of 8 groups each of 12 cows (including 4 primiparous cows). Two of the 8 groups were assigned to each of 4(More)