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We describe the landscape of somatic genomic alterations based on multidimensional and comprehensive characterization of more than 500 glioblastoma tumors (GBMs). We identify several novel mutated genes as well as complex rearrangements of signature receptors, including EGFR and PDGFRA. TERT promoter mutations are shown to correlate with elevated mRNA(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common adult primary brain tumor and is comprised of a heterogeneous population of cells. It is unclear which cells within the tumor mass are responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. In this study, we report that brain tumor stem cells can be identified from adult GBMs. These tumor stem cells form(More)
The time course of optical intrinsic signals was examined in order to characterize the evolution of response in human and rodent cortex. Both subtraction/ratio and principal component analyses were used to construct time-course curves. The time course began at a prestimulus baseline, responded with a finite delay, overcompensated, reduced to a maintenance(More)
BACKGROUND Recently, a small population of cancer stem cells in adult and pediatric brain tumors has been identified. Some evidence has suggested that CD133 is a marker for a subset of leukemia and glioblastoma cancer stem cells. Especially, CD133 positive cells isolated from human glioblastoma may initiate tumors and represent novel targets for(More)
BACKGROUND The ability of vascular anomalies to induce neoplastic transformation in normal brain parenchyma has been suggested but not demonstrated. We present a novel case in which a patient with a pre-existing cavernous malformation developed an adjacent ependymoma. CASE DESCRIPTION A 72-year-old man developed an anaplastic ependymoma at the site of a(More)
In this Phase I trial, patients' peripheral blood dendritic cells were pulsed with peptides eluted from the surface of autologous glioma cells. Three biweekly intradermal vaccinations of peptide-pulsed dendritic cells were administered to seven patients with glioblastoma multiforme and two patients with anaplastic astrocytoma. Dendritic cell vaccination(More)
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are capable of tracking migrating glioma cells. To exploit this tropism to generate an antitumor T-cell response, particularly against disseminating tumor pockets, we inoculated intracranial glioma-bearing mice with interleukin 12 (IL-12) producing NSCs. Intratumoral therapy with IL-12-secreting NSCs prolonged survival compared to(More)
BACKGROUND This study evaluated the safety and immune responses to an autologous dendritic cell vaccine pulsed with class I peptides from tumor-associated antigens (TAA) expressed on gliomas and overexpressed in their cancer stem cell population (ICT-107). METHODS TAA epitopes included HER2, TRP-2, gp100, MAGE-1, IL13Rα2, and AIM-2. HLA-A1- and/or(More)
Intraoperative measures of functioning brain are an important aspect to understanding normal and diseased cortical response. Previous studies, in animal models, have used optical reflectance maps to illustrate the location and timing of functional activity. We used optical reflectance mapping in patients undergoing parietal tumor resection to reveal the(More)
Immunization with an altered myelin-derived peptide (MOG45D) improves recovery from acute CNS insults, partially via recruitment of monocyte-derived macrophages that locally display a regulatory activity. Here, we investigated the local alterations in the cellular and molecular immunological milieu associated with attenuation of Alzheimer's disease-like(More)