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Injured nerves regenerate their axons in the peripheral (PNS) but not the central nervous system (CNS). The contrasting capacities have been attributed to the growth permissive Schwann cells in the PNS and the growth inhibitory environment of the oligodendrocytes in the CNS. In the current review, we first contrast the robust regenerative response of(More)
OBJECTIVE Oxidative stress (OS) induces smooth muscle cell apoptosis in the atherosclerotic plaque, leading to plaque instability and rupture. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) exerts cytoprotective effects in the vessel wall. Recent evidence suggests that PKB/Akt may modulate HO-1 activity. This study examined the role of Akt in mediating the cytoprotective effects(More)
Repeated in vivo two-photon imaging of adult mammalian spinal cords, with subcellular resolution, would be crucial for understanding cellular mechanisms under normal and pathological conditions. Current methods are limited because they require surgery for each imaging session. Here we report a simple glass window methodology avoiding repeated surgical(More)
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in adult rodents is the standard experimental model for studying autonomic demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Here we present a low-cost and reproducible glass window implantation protocol that is suitable for intravital microscopy and studying the dynamics of spinal cord cytoarchitecture with(More)
The input-output properties of motoneurons are dynamically regulated. This regulation depends, in part, on the relative location of excitatory and inhibitory synapses, voltage-dependent and -independent channels, and neuromodulatory synapses on the dendritic tree. The goal of the present study was to quantify the number and distribution of synapses from two(More)
Serotonergic (5-HT) and noradrenergic (NA) input to spinal motoneurons is essential for generating plateau potentials and self-sustained discharges. Extensor motoneurons are densely innervated by 5-HT and NA synapses and have robust plateau potentials and self-sustained discharges. Conversely, plateau potentials and self-sustained discharges are very rare(More)
After spinal cord injury (SCI), resident and peripheral myelomonocytic cells are recruited to the injury site and play a role in injury progression. These cells are important for clearing cellular debris, and can modulate the retraction and growth of axons in vitro. However, their precise spatiotemporal recruitment dynamics is unknown, and their respective(More)
It is well established that long, descending axons of the adult mammalian spinal cord do not regenerate after a spinal cord injury (SCI). These axons do not regenerate because they do not mount an adequate regenerative response and growth is inhibited at the injury site by growth cone collapsing molecules, such as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs).(More)
Following proximal axotomy, several types of neurons sprout de novo axons from distal dendrites. These processes may represent a means of forming new circuits following spinal cord injury. However, it is not know whether mammalian spinal interneurons, axotomized as a result of a spinal cord injury, develop de novo axons. Our goal was to determine whether(More)
We recently reported that some, but not all, axotomized propriospinal commissural interneurons (PCI) of the adult mammal can regenerate through spinal midsagittal transection injury sites (Fenrich and Rose [2009] J Neurosci 29:12145-12158). In this model, regenerating axons grow through a lesion site surrounded by a dense deposition of chondroitin sulfate(More)