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The live attenuated yellow fever vaccine 17D (YF-17D) is one of the most effective vaccines available, with a 65-yr history of use in >400 million people globally. Despite this efficacy, there is presently no information about the immunological mechanisms by which YF-17D acts. Here, we present data that suggest that YF-17D activates multiple Toll-like(More)
Although TLR7 and TLR8 are phylogenetically and structurally related, their relative functions are largely unknown. The role of TLR7 has been established using TLR7-deficient mice and small molecule TLR7 agonists. The absence of TLR8-selective agonists has hampered our understanding of the role of TLR8. In this study TLR agonists selective for TLR7 or TLR8(More)
Synthetic immune response modifiers (IRM) such as imidazoquinolines can selectively activate human TLR7 or TLR8. Although these endosomal TLRs are close relatives, TLR7-deficient mice are unresponsive to TLR8 agonist IRMs. Similarly, natural ssRNA cannot activate murine TLR8, leading to the belief that murine TLR8 is nonfunctional. In this study, we(More)
Relapse is more frequent after autologous than allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT), due in part to lack of T-lymphocyte mediated allogeneic graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effects. Infusions of leukemia-reactive T cells to patients after autologous BMT may be a means for providing a GVL effect. Costimulation of T cells by binding of the CD28 receptor(More)
The immune response modifiers, imiquimod and resiquimod, are TLR7 agonists that induce type I interferon in numerous species, including humans. Recently, it was shown that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) are the primary interferon-producing cells in the blood in response to viral infections. Here, we characterize the activation of human pDC with the TLR7(More)
NK cells limit the emergence of cancers and viral infections by surveillance of 'missing-self' and 'induced-self' ligands, and by direct recognition of pathogen-associated molecules. We examined individual roles for Toll-like receptors (TLRs)-7 and -8 in human NK-cell activation using synthetic, small molecule agonists of either TLR-7 (imiquimod and(More)
Among the 11 human TLRs, a subfamily TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 display similarities in structure and endosomal localization. Natural agonists consisting of nucleic acids, such as ssRNA or DNA with CpG motifs, activate the innate immune cells through these TLRs. Immune response modifiers (IRMs) of imidazoquinoline class compounds 3M-001, 3M-002, and 3M-003 have(More)
The immune response to a murine myeloid leukemia (cell line C1498) was studied in vitro and in vivo. Natural killer (NK) cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) were shown to lyse C1498 in vitro through the binding of leukocyte function antigen-1 (LFA-1) on effectors and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and ICAM-2 on C1498 target cells.(More)
The immunomodulatory properties of yeast β-1,3/1,6 glucans are mediated through their ability to be recognized by human innate immune cells. While several studies have investigated binding of opsonized and unopsonized particulate β-glucans to human immune cells mainly via complement receptor 3 (CR3) or Dectin-1, few have focused on understanding the binding(More)
Neuroblastoma may escape an immune attack by virtue of its low expression of surface accessory molecules essential in the antitumor response. Murine neuroblastoma, neuro-2a, was transduced with the retroviral vector LB7-1SN to examine the influence of B7-1 expression on the immune response directed against a low major histocompatibility class (MHC) I and(More)