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Increases in the intracellular concentration of calcium ([Ca2+]i) activate various signaling pathways that lead to the expression of genes that are essential for dendritic development, neuronal survival, and synaptic plasticity. The mode of Ca2+ entry into a neuron plays a key role in determining which signaling pathways are activated and thus specifies the(More)
Conventional image sensors have improved with technology scaling mainly by reducing pixel size to increase spatial resolution [1,2]. As resolution approaches the limits of existing optics, is there much to gain from further pixel scaling? In [3], we argue that further scaling can provide new imaging capabilities via a multi-aperture (MA) architecture, which(More)
—The first integrated multi-aperture image sensor is reported. It comprises a 166×76 array of 16×16, 0.7µm pixel, FT-CCD subarrays with local readout circuit, per-column 10-bit ADCs, and control circuits. The image sensor is fabricated in a 0.11µm CMOS process modified for buried channel charge transfer. Global snap shot image acquisition with CDS is(More)
An image sensor comprising an array of apertures each with its own local integrated optics and pixel array is presented. A lens focuses the image above the sensor creating overlapping fields of view between apertures. Multiple perspectives of the image in the focal plane facilitate the synthesis of a 3D image at a higher spatial resolution than the aperture(More)
The first image sensor with submicron pixel pitch is reported. Test structures comprising 16 × 16 pixel Full-Frame-Transfer (FFT) CCDs with 0.5µm pixels are fabricated in a single-poly 110nm CMOS process. Characterization results demonstrate charge transfer efficiency of 99.9%, QE of 48% at 550nm, conversion gain of 193µV/e-, well capacity of 3550e-, dark(More)
— A prototype of a new high dynamic range readout scheme targeted for 3D-IC IR focal plane arrays is described. Dynamic range is extended using synchronous self-reset while high SNR is maintained using few non-uniformly spaced captures and least-squares fit to estimate pixel photocurrent. The prototype comprises of a 16×5 readout pixel array fabricated in a(More)
Endothelial cells are a promising target for cancer gene therapy because neoangiogenesis is vital for the supply of oxygen and nutrients to solid tumours. However, endothelial cells have been reported to be difficult to transfect. We demonstrate high rates of transfection with the reporter gene pSV40 beta gal using DC-Chol/DOPE cationic liposomes and lower(More)
ii iv Preface There has been significant development of image sensors over the last decade to address issues such as sensitivity, resolution, capture rate, dynamic range, dark current, crosstalk, power consumption, manufacturability and cost. The motivation to decrease pixel size has been either to increase spatial resolution in a given format or to produce(More)