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Section 2.3 showed the continuum of possibilities regarding the timing of structure in a research project. That continuum applies to design and data, and to research questions, the subject of this chapter. The contrast was shown between fully prespecified research questions, and those which unfold as the study develops. It was pointed out that quantitative(More)
The purpose of this research was to investigate the extent to which self-efficacy acts as a mediating variable between the learning environment and achievement. Seven year 5 classes (N = 179 students aged 9 to 10 years) were allocated randomly to cooperative, competitive or individualistic environments for twice-weekly social studies lessons, changing(More)
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