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talpid3 is an embryonic-lethal chicken mutation in a molecularly un-characterised autosomal gene. The recessive, pleiotropic phenotype includes polydactylous limbs with morphologically similar digits. Previous analysis established that hox-D and bmp genes, that are normally expressed posteriorly in the limb bud in response to a localised, posterior source(More)
The chicken mutant talpid3 (ta3) has polydactylous limbs with up to 7-8 morphologically similar digits. This lack of antero-posterior polarity in digit pattern is correlated with symmetrical expression of genes of the HoxD complex. We determined the distribution of polarizing activity in limb buds of the chick mutant ta3 by assessing the ability of(More)
Spatially-restricted expression domains of Msx 1 and Msx 2 in the developing chick face suggest that they may play a role in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions governing outgrowth of facial primordia. Retinoid application to developing chick faces reproducibly inhibits upper beak outgrowth but the lower beak is unaffected. In the normal face, high levels(More)
BACKGROUND Drug-eluting stents reduce the incidence of in-stent restenosis, but they result in delayed arterial healing and are associated with a chronic inflammatory response and hypersensitivity reactions. Identifying novel interventions to enhance wound healing and reduce the inflammatory response may improve long-term clinical outcomes.(More)
OBJECTIVE MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that have the capacity to control protein production through binding "seed" sequences within a target mRNA. Each miRNA is capable of potentially controlling hundreds of genes. The regulation of miRNAs in the lung during the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is unknown. METHODS AND(More)
AIMS The long-term failure of autologous saphenous vein bypass grafts due to neointimal thickening is a major clinical burden. Identifying novel strategies to prevent neointimal thickening is important. Thus, this study aimed to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) that are dysregulated during neointimal formation and determine their pathophysiological relevance(More)
Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), including stent insertion, are established therapies in both acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and symptomatic chronic coronary artery disease refractory to pharmacological therapy. These continually advancing treatments remain limited by failure of conduit grafts in CABG and(More)
AIMS To evaluate the safety and efficacy of once-weekly dulaglutide 1.5 mg, a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, compared with placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) on glimepiride monotherapy. METHODS This phase III, randomized (4 : 1; dulaglutide:placebo), double-blind, placebo-controlled, 24-week study compared the safety and(More)
All animal procedures were performed in accordance with UK Home Office Guidance on the operation of the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 and institutional ethical approval (PPL60/4114 and PPL 60/4429). Male white Landrace pigs (SAC Commercial Ltd, Edinburgh, UK) and miR-21 knockout mice (1) were maintained on a 12 hour light/dark cycle with free(More)
Considerable recent advances have been made in understanding the mechanisms of vertebrate limb development. New information about molecules governing cell interactions in embryonic limbs begins to bridge the gap between the experimental analysis and genetics of congenital limb defects. There are four main stages in vertebrate limb development: initiation,(More)