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Fossil, archaeological, and morphometric data suggest that indigenous red foxes in North America were derived from vicariance in two disjunct refugia during the last glaciation: one in Beringia and one in the contiguous USA. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a phylogeographical analysis of the North American red fox within its presettlement range. We(More)
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This literature review represents the work of many people. The general background section was written by Margaret A. O'Connell. Kathyrn A. Kelsey wrote the review of empirical studies for amphibians and reptiles. Ellen L. Martin-Yanny wrote the corresponding section for birds, Bertie J. Weddell wrote the small mammal review. Robin E. Christy(More)
Preface Old-growth Douglas-fir forests in the Pacific Northwest-and their most celebrated inhabitant, the northern spotted owl-have engendered an acrimonious controversy that has been raging for over a decade. Should ancient forests be protected for their aesthetic appeal and because they provide a broad range of ecological values, including the most(More)
Habitat utilization and home range size of the bobcat in managed forests of western Washington Bat survey results: habitat occupancy patterns and roost use by silver-haired bats As of 199 1 most of the :major research effort spent in understanding wildlife habitat relationships in forests of the Pacific Northwest targeted the investigation of old-growth(More)
Most native red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in the western contiguous United States appear to be climatically restricted to colder regions in the major mountain ranges and, in some areas, have suffered precipitous declines in abundance that may be linked to warming trends. However, another population of unknown origin has occurred in arid habitats in the(More)
We propose that the pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus) is a keystone habitat modifier in the Pacific Northwest. It is the largest woodpecker in this region and the only species that forages primarily by excavating; only pileateds are capable of creating large cavities in hard snags and decadent live trees. A wide array of species, including many that(More)
The retention of trees in harvest units is an integral part of forest management practices on federal lands in the northwestern United States (U.S.), yet the ecological benefits that result from various levels or patterns of retained trees remain speculative. Large scale and long term silvaculture experiments are needed to evaluate the effects of(More)
In western Oregon and Washington, recent changes in federal forest management policy contained in the Northwest Forest Plan have led to new harvest prescriptions on millions of acres of public lands. For example. on upland sites, standards and guidelines now require that live (green) trees are retained in at least 15% of the area within each harvest unit(More)