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Cardiac myocytes can undergo programmed cell death in response to a variety of insults and apoptotic elimination of myocytes from the adult myocardium can lead directly to cardiomyopathy and death. Although it remains to be shown that therapy specifically targeting apoptosis will improve the prognosis of ischemic heart disease or heart failure, a number of(More)
Excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytosolic calcium accumulation play major roles in the initiation of programmed cell death during acute myocardial infarction. Cell death may include necrosis, apoptosis and autophagy, and combinations thereof. During ischemia, calcium handling between the sarcoplasmic reticulum and myofilament is(More)
Coronary artery disease leads to injury and loss of myocardial tissue by deprivation of blood flow (ischemia) and is a major underlying cause of heart failure. Prolonged ischemia causes necrosis and apoptosis of cardiac myocytes and vascular cells; however, the mechanisms of ischemia-mediated cell death are poorly understood. Ischemia is associated with(More)
Ischemia and reperfusion activate cardiac myocyte apoptosis, which may be an important feature in the progression of ischemic heart disease. The relative contributions of ischemia and reperfusion to apoptotic signal transduction have not been established. We report here that severe chronic hypoxia alone does not cause apoptosis of cardiac myocytes in(More)
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a peptide hormone with potent vasoconstrictor properties that is synthesized and secreted predominantly by vascular endothelial cells. Its production is regulated by numerous stimuli including ischemia and hypoxia, and the enhanced levels that occur during myocardial ischemia may contribute to the progression of heart failure. We(More)
BACKGROUND Acetyltransferase p300 is essential for cardiac development and is thought to be involved in cardiac myocyte growth through MEF2- and GATA4-dependent transcription. However, the importance of p300 in the modulation of cardiac growth in vivo is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS Pressure overload induced by transverse aortic coarctation, postnatal(More)
Hypoxia and reoxygenation are principal components of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion and have distinctive effects on the tissue. Both conditions have been associated with inflammation, necrosis, apoptosis, and myocardial infarction. Using a cell culture model of ischemia and reperfusion in which cardiac myocytes were exposed to cycles of hypoxia and(More)
BACKGROUND Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are pluripotent cells, present in the bone marrow and other tissues that can differentiate into cells of all germ layers and may be involved in tissue maintenance and repair in adult organisms. Because of their plasticity and accessibility these cells are also prime candidates for regenerative medicine. The(More)
OBJECTIVES Regulated expression of transferred foreign genes may be an important feature of gene therapy. Because coronary artery disease often involves intermittent myocardial ischaemia followed by periods of normal cardiac function it will probably be necessary to regulate the expression of putative therapeutic/cardioprotective genes directly in response(More)
Elevated levels of oxygen free radicals have been implicated in the pathways of reperfusion injury to myocardial tissue. The targets for free radicals may include specific as well as random intracellular components, and part of the cellular response is the induction of extracellularly activated and stress-activated kinases. The intermediate signals that(More)