Keith A Strand

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Opioid action was thought to exert reinforcing effects solely via the initial agonism of opioid receptors. Here, we present evidence for an additional novel contributor to opioid reward: the innate immune pattern-recognition receptor, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and its MyD88-dependent signaling. Blockade of TLR4/MD2 by administration of the nonopioid,(More)
UNLABELLED Decreased voluntary wheel running has recently been proposed as a preclinical pain measure for inflammatory pain, but whether this reflects pain evoked by use of the affected limbs is unknown. To assess the role of inflammation site as a determinant of this measure, complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), formalin, or equivolume vehicle was(More)
Opioid use for pain management has dramatically increased, with little assessment of potential pathophysiological consequences for the primary pain condition. Here, a short course of morphine, starting 10 d after injury in male rats, paradoxically and remarkably doubled the duration of chronic constriction injury (CCI)-allodynia, months after morphine(More)
While stress and stress-induced glucocorticoids are classically considered immunosuppressive, they can also enhance proinflammatory responses to subsequent challenges. Corticosterone (CORT) primes rat immune cells, exacerbating pro-inflammatory responses to subsequent immune challenges. Stress can also sensitize pain. One possibility is that stress primes(More)
Opioids, such as morphine, induce potent analgesia and are the gold standard for the treatment of acute pain. However, opioids also activate glia, inducing pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production, which counter-regulates the analgesic properties of classical opioid receptor activation. It is not known how long these adverse pro-inflammatory(More)
UNLABELLED Alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) agonists attenuate pain and inflammation in preclinical models. This study tested whether systemic delivery of an α7 nAChR agonist attenuates neuropathic pain and associated immune-mediated pro-inflammation. Hind paw response thresholds to mechanical stimuli in male Sprague Dawley rats were(More)
There is a greater prevalence of neuroinflammatory diseases in females than males. Microglia, the major immunocompetent cells of the central nervous system, play a key role in neuroinflammation. We aimed to determine if inherent differences in toll-like receptor 4 mediated pro-inflammatory response in glia could possibly contribute to the skewed female(More)
A single intrathecal dose of adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR) agonist was previously reported to produce a multi-week reversal of allodynia in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain. We aimed to determine if this long-term reversal was induced by A2AR agonism versus more generalized across adenosine receptor subtypes, and begin to explore(More)
Altered serum concentrations of the major circulating form of vitamin D [25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25D(3))] and its active hormone derivative [1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25D(3))] have been linked to non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). However, a mechanistic basis for this occurrence has not been fully elucidated. Normally, renal(More)
Rifampin has been used for the treatment of bacterial infections for many years. Clinically, rifampin has been found to possess immunomodulatory effects. However, the molecular target responsible for the immunosuppressive effects of rifampin is not known. Herein, we show that rifampin binds to myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2), the key coreceptor for(More)