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The phenomenon of RNAi, in which the introduction of dsRNA into a cell triggers the destruction of the corresponding mRNA resulting in a gene silencing effect, is conserved across a wide array of plant and animal phyla. However, the mechanism by which the dsRNA enters a cell, allowing the RNAi effect to occur throughout a multicellular organism (systemic(More)
Clostridium botulinum produces botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) as a large toxin complex associated with nontoxic-nonhemagglutinin (NTNHA) and/or hemagglutinin components. In the present study, high-level expression of full-length (1197 amino acids) rNTNHA from C. botulinum serotype D strain 4947 (D-4947) was achieved in an Escherichia coli system. Spontaneous(More)
The discovery of environmental RNA interference (RNAi), in which gene expression is suppressed via feeding with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules, opened the door to the practical application of RNAi-based techniques in crop pest management. The western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) is one of the most devastating corn pests in(More)
Large-sized botulinum toxin complex (L-TC) is formed by conjugation of neurotoxin, nontoxic nonhemagglutinin and hemagglutinin (HA) complex. The HA complex is formed by association of three HA-70 molecules and three HA-33/HA-17 trimers, comprised of a single HA-17 and two HA-33 proteins. The HA-33/HA-17 trimer isolated from serotype D L-TC has the ability(More)
Although bicarbonate transport in corneal endothelium has been suggested to be coupled to Na+, the underlying molecular mechanism has not been clarified. In the present study we investigated whether a recently cloned Na+-HCO3 – cotransporter (NBC-1) is responsible for this process, and, if so, whether the endothelium expresses a separate isoform or one of(More)
Clostridium botulinum produces a large toxin complex (L-TC) that increases paracellular permeability in intestinal epithelial cells by a mechanism that remains unclear. Here, we show that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are involved in this permeability increase. Paracellular permeability was measured by FITC-dextran flux through a monolayer of(More)
A large size botulinum toxin complex (L-TC) is composed of a single neurotoxin (BoNT), a single nontoxic nonhaemagglutinin (NTNHA) and a haemagglutinin (HA) complex. The HA complex is comprised of three HA-70 molecules and three arm structures of HA-33/HA-17 that consist of two HA-33 and a single HA-17. In addition to the mature L-TC, smaller TCs are(More)
In cell culture supernatants, the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) exists as part of a toxin complex (TC) in which nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (NTNHA) and/or hemagglutinins (HAs) are assembled onto the BoNT. A series of investigations indicated that formation of the TC is vital for delivery of the toxin to nerve cells through the digestive tract. In the assembly(More)
The large-sized botulinum toxin complex (L-TC) is composed of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) and nontoxic proteins, e.g. nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (NTNHA) and three types of hemagglutinins (HAs; HA-33, HA-17 and HA-70). The nontoxic proteins play a critical role in L-TC oral toxicity by protecting the BoNT in the digestive tract, and facilitating absorption of(More)
A protease was purified from the culture medium of Clostridium botulinum serotype C strain Stockholm (C-St). The purified protease belonged to the cysteine protease family based on assays for enzyme inhibitors, activators and kinetic parameters. The protease formed a binary complex consisting of 41- and 17-kDa proteins held together non-covalently. The DNA(More)