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Clostridium botulinum produces botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) as a large toxin complex associated with nontoxic-nonhemagglutinin (NTNHA) and/or hemagglutinin components. In the present study, high-level expression of full-length (1197 amino acids) rNTNHA from C. botulinum serotype D strain 4947 (D-4947) was achieved in an Escherichia coli system. Spontaneous(More)
Large-sized botulinum toxin complex (L-TC) is formed by conjugation of neurotoxin, nontoxic nonhemagglutinin and hemagglutinin (HA) complex. The HA complex is formed by association of three HA-70 molecules and three HA-33/HA-17 trimers, comprised of a single HA-17 and two HA-33 proteins. The HA-33/HA-17 trimer isolated from serotype D L-TC has the ability(More)
The phenomenon of RNAi, in which the introduction of dsRNA into a cell triggers the destruction of the corresponding mRNA resulting in a gene silencing effect, is conserved across a wide array of plant and animal phyla. However, the mechanism by which the dsRNA enters a cell, allowing the RNAi effect to occur throughout a multicellular organism (systemic(More)
A large size botulinum toxin complex (L-TC) is composed of a single neurotoxin (BoNT), a single nontoxic nonhaemagglutinin (NTNHA) and a haemagglutinin (HA) complex. The HA complex is comprised of three HA-70 molecules and three arm structures of HA-33/HA-17 that consist of two HA-33 and a single HA-17. In addition to the mature L-TC, smaller TCs are(More)
In cell culture supernatants, the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) exists as part of a toxin complex (TC) in which nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (NTNHA) and/or hemagglutinins (HAs) are assembled onto the BoNT. A series of investigations indicated that formation of the TC is vital for delivery of the toxin to nerve cells through the digestive tract. In the assembly(More)
The large-sized botulinum toxin complex (L-TC) is composed of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) and nontoxic proteins, e.g. nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (NTNHA) and three types of hemagglutinins (HAs; HA-33, HA-17 and HA-70). The nontoxic proteins play a critical role in L-TC oral toxicity by protecting the BoNT in the digestive tract, and facilitating absorption of(More)
A protease was purified from the culture medium of Clostridium botulinum serotype C strain Stockholm (C-St). The purified protease belonged to the cysteine protease family based on assays for enzyme inhibitors, activators and kinetic parameters. The protease formed a binary complex consisting of 41- and 17-kDa proteins held together non-covalently. The DNA(More)
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) binds to nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (NTNHA) protein in a pH-dependent manner, and yields the protease-resistant BoNT/NTNHA complex. Here, we screened short peptides that bind to the serotype D NTNHA (NTNHA-D) using random phage display technique. NTNHA was fixed onto electrode of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) apparatus, and(More)
The discovery of environmental RNA interference (RNAi), in which gene expression is suppressed via feeding with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules, opened the door to the practical application of RNAi-based techniques in crop pest management. The western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) is one of the most devastating corn pests in(More)
Clostridium botulinum produces a large toxin complex (L-TC) that increases paracellular permeability in intestinal epithelial cells by a mechanism that remains unclear. Here, we show that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are involved in this permeability increase. Paracellular permeability was measured by FITC-dextran flux through a monolayer of(More)