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The purpose of this study was to determine the brain regions associated with anosognosia in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Anosognosia for memory disturbance was assessed in 29 probable AD patients, based on the discrepancy between questionnaire scores of the patients and their caregivers. In I-123-IMP single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), a(More)
BACKGROUND There is accumulating evidence that the activation of spinal glial cells, especially microglia, is a key event in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. However, the inhibition of microglial activation is often ineffective, especially for long-lasting persistent neuropathic pain. So far, neuropathic pain remains largely intractable and a new(More)
Grape polyphenols are known to protect neurons against oxidative stress. We used grape seed extract (GSE) from "Koshu" grapes (Vitis vinifera) containing a variety of polyphenols, and performed transcriptome analysis to determine the effects of GSE on primary cultures of astrocytes in the hippocampus. GSE upregulated various mRNAs for cytokines, among which(More)
Microglia survey the brain environment by sensing several types of diffusible molecules, among which extracellular nucleotides released/leaked from damaged cells have central roles. Microglia sense ATP or other nucleotides by multiple P2 receptors, after which they change into several different phenotypes. However, so far, it is largely unknown whether(More)
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a well known environmental pollutant that induces serious neuronal damage. Although MeHg readily crosses the blood-brain barrier, and should affect both neurons and glial cells, how it affects glia or neuron-to-glia interactions has received only limited attention. Here, we report that MeHg triggers ATP/P2Y1 receptor signals in(More)
Since gonadal female hormones act on and protect neurons, it is well known that the female brain is less vulnerable to stroke or other brain insults than the male brain. Although glial functions have been shown to affect the vulnerability of the brain, little is known if such a sex difference exists in glia, much less the mechanism that might cause(More)
BACKGROUND Abnormalities of fractional anisotropy (FA) have been reported in previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, there are some inconsistencies in the results and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) has not been investigated. The goal of this study was to investigate white(More)
AIM To investigate relationships among burnout, coping style and personality. METHODS Seventy-two professional caregivers working at nursing homes in Japan were assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), 30-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situation (CISS). RESULTS(More)
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts the entry of circulating drugs and xenobiotics into the brain, and thus its permeability to substances is a critical factor that determines their central effects. The infant brain is vulnerable to neurotoxic substances partly due to the immature BBB. The employment of in vitro BBB models to evaluate permeability of(More)