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We recently reported that a phosphodiesterase-III inhibitor, cilostazol, prevented the hemorrhagic transformation induced by focal cerebral ischemia in mice treated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and that it reversed tPA-induced cell damage by protecting the neurovascular unit, particularly endothelial cells. However, the mechanisms of cilostazol(More)
This study investigated the possible ameliorative effects of adipose-derived stem cells-conditioned medium (ASC-CM) on experimental ischemic stroke. In vivo ischemic stroke was induced in mice after 2h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by 22 h reperfusion. Culture of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells with 100 μM glutamate for 24h was used(More)
The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether cilostazol, a phosphodiesterase-III inhibitor and antiplatelet drug, would prevent tPA-associated hemorrhagic transformation. Mice subjected to 6-h middle cerebral artery occlusion were treated with delayed tPA alone at 6 h, with combined tPA plus cilostazol at 6 h, or with vehicle at 6 h. We used(More)
Accumulating evidence shows that post-ischemic inflammation originated by Toll-like receptors (TLR) plays critical roles in ischemic stroke. However, the functions of other innate immune receptors are poorly understood in cerebral ischemia. Macrophage-inducible C-type lectin, Mincle, is one of the innate immune receptor C-type lectin-like receptor (CLR) to(More)
Recent data have shown that TLR4 performs a key role in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury which serves as the origin of the immunological inflammatory reactions. However, the therapeutic effects of pharmacological inhibitions of TLR4 and its immediate down-stream pathway remain to be uncovered. In the present study, on mice, intracerebroventricular(More)
To improve the clinical outcome of patients who suffered ischemic stroke, cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is one of the major concerns that should be conquered. Inflammatory reactions are considered a major contributor to brain injury following cerebral ischemia, and I/R exacerbates these reactions. The aim of this study was to investigate the(More)
Diabetes is a crucial risk factor for stroke and is associated with increased frequency and poor prognosis. Although endothelial dysfunction is a known contributor of stroke, the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism by which chronic hyperglycemia may contribute to the worsened prognosis(More)
Mitochondria play a key role in cell survival by perfoming functions such as adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) synthesis, regulation of apoptotic cell death, calcium storage. Hypoxic conditions induce mitochondrial dysfunction, which leads to endothelial injury in cerebral ischemia. Functional disorders include the following: collapse of mitochondrial membrane(More)
Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) remains a devastating disease, and heavy alcohol consumption is an underlying risk factor. The aim of this study was to study the mechanism of ethanol-induced endothelial cell damage and to evaluate the protective effect of cilostazol against ethanol-induced damage. We first evaluated transendothelial electrical resistance(More)
We examined the temporal profiles of changes in the expressions of tight junction proteins (TJPs; namely, claudin-5, occludin, and ZO-1) after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in mice. We also examined the effects of delayed treatment with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) on the expressions of TJPs and angiopoietin (Ang) -1/2/Tie2. Mice subjected to a(More)
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