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Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disorder that predominantly affects motor-related neuroanatomic structures. The role of microglia in MSA is unknown. To address this issue, we conducted quantitative image studies on the brains from 13 cases of MSA, comprising 8 cerebellar and 5 parkinsonian variants. Microglial and glial cytoplasmic(More)
The role of microglia in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is unknown. To address this issue we examined 10 cases of PSP, 5 cases of CBD, and 4 normal controls. Microglial and tau burdens were determined with image analysis on brain sections that had been immunostained with monoclonal antibodies to HLA-DR and(More)
The effects of histamine H3-receptor antagonists, thioperamide, and clobenpropit on amygdaloid kindled seizures were investigated in rats. Both intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of H3-antagonists resulted in a dose-related inhibition of amygdaloid kindled seizures. An inhibition induced by thioperamide was antagonized by(More)
Iron is an essential trace metal for most organisms. However, excess iron causes oxidative stress through production of highly toxic hydroxyl radicals via the Fenton/Haber-Weiss reaction. Iron storage in the body is reported to be associated with fat accumulation and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated the role of iron in adiposity by using KKAy mice(More)
Glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) and microglia were quantified in 12 cases of multiple system atrophy (MSA) with special reference to their association with histologically defined lesion severity. The targets of the analysis were white matter (cerebellum, pontine base) and gray matter (putamen, substantia nigra). First, the lesion severity was defined:(More)
The present study was undertaken to clarify the role of histaminergic neuron system on amygdaloid kindled seizures in rats. A significant decrease in histamine contents in the amygdala was observed after development of amygdaloid kindling. Histidine and metoprine inhibited amygdaloid kindled seizures at doses causing an increase in histamine contents of the(More)
The nongenomic effects of aldosterone have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases. Aldosterone-induced nongenomic effects are attributable in part to the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), a classical mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. Big MAP kinase 1 (BMK1), a newly identified MAP kinase,(More)
Hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau) deposition has been documented in a limited population of patients with Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS) with particular point mutations of the prion protein (PrP) gene. Although its pathogenesis is only poorly understood, p-tau in GSS is known to be identical to that in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We conducted(More)
The effects of 14 different 1,4-benzodiazepines on amygdaloid-kindled seizures and their chemical structure-related anticonvulsive actions were studied. The prophylactic effects of 1, 4-benzodiazepines on amygdaloid-kindled seizures were also examined. Male Wistar strain rats were used in this study. Rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium (35(More)
A neuroepithelial tumor showing combined histological features of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT) and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is described. The patient was a 60-year-old male with a long-standing temporal lobe tumor and seizures. After a long, dormant period, the tumor, which had been localized in the left uncus, re-grew rapidly and(More)