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Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disorder that predominantly affects motor-related neuroanatomic structures. The role of microglia in MSA is unknown. To address this issue, we conducted quantitative image studies on the brains from 13 cases of MSA, comprising 8 cerebellar and 5 parkinsonian variants. Microglial and glial cytoplasmic(More)
Many epidemiologic studies have reported that dietary flavonoids provide protection against cardiovascular disease. Quercetin, a member of the bioflavonoids family, has been proposed to have anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, and anti-hypertensive properties leading to the beneficial effects against cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies demonstrated(More)
The role of microglia in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is unknown. To address this issue we examined 10 cases of PSP, 5 cases of CBD, and 4 normal controls. Microglial and tau burdens were determined with image analysis on brain sections that had been immunostained with monoclonal antibodies to HLA-DR and(More)
A 63-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with cognitive decline. On admission, he had a fever and mild cognitive dysfunction, suggesting chronic meningoencephalitis. Apart from a mild increase in serum C-reactive protein level and marked neutrophilia, laboratory findings were unremarkable. Brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed multiple small(More)
The histogenesis of stromal cells in hemangioblastoma is inconclusive despite a long-term controversy. An immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study was conducted for 17 cases of cerebellar hemangioblastoma. A wide range of immunohistological markers, targeting epithelial, mesenchymal, endothelial and neuroectodermal tissues, was used. In all cases, the(More)
The effects of histamine H3-receptor antagonists, thioperamide, and clobenpropit on amygdaloid kindled seizures were investigated in rats. Both intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of H3-antagonists resulted in a dose-related inhibition of amygdaloid kindled seizures. An inhibition induced by thioperamide was antagonized by(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Recent studies have shown that the cellular immune response in the development of vascular remodeling modulates the resulting pathological alterations. We show that hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (Hif-1) (specifically expressed in T cells) is involved in the immune response to vascular remodeling that accompanies arteriosclerosis. (More)
Iron is an essential trace metal for most organisms. However, excess iron causes oxidative stress through production of highly toxic hydroxyl radicals via the Fenton/Haber-Weiss reaction. Iron storage in the body is reported to be associated with fat accumulation and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated the role of iron in adiposity by using KKAy mice(More)
1: Ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3[2H]-one) is a selenoorganic compound exhibiting both glutathione peroxidase activity and antioxidant activity. Although it has been reported that ebselen is effective for oxidative stress-induced neuronal damage both in vivo and clinically, the precise mechanisms of the efficacy have not yet been elucidated. Thus,(More)
The nongenomic effects of aldosterone have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases. Aldosterone-induced nongenomic effects are attributable in part to the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), a classical mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. Big MAP kinase 1 (BMK1), a newly identified MAP kinase,(More)