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Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disorder that predominantly affects motor-related neuroanatomic structures. The role of microglia in MSA is unknown. To address this issue, we conducted quantitative image studies on the brains from 13 cases of MSA, comprising 8 cerebellar and 5 parkinsonian variants. Microglial and glial cytoplasmic(More)
The role of microglia in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is unknown. To address this issue we examined 10 cases of PSP, 5 cases of CBD, and 4 normal controls. Microglial and tau burdens were determined with image analysis on brain sections that had been immunostained with monoclonal antibodies to HLA-DR and(More)
Glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) and microglia were quantified in 12 cases of multiple system atrophy (MSA) with special reference to their association with histologically defined lesion severity. The targets of the analysis were white matter (cerebellum, pontine base) and gray matter (putamen, substantia nigra). First, the lesion severity was defined:(More)
The nongenomic effects of aldosterone have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases. Aldosterone-induced nongenomic effects are attributable in part to the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), a classical mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. Big MAP kinase 1 (BMK1), a newly identified MAP kinase,(More)
Hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau) deposition has been documented in a limited population of patients with Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS) with particular point mutations of the prion protein (PrP) gene. Although its pathogenesis is only poorly understood, p-tau in GSS is known to be identical to that in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We conducted(More)
A 60-year-old man presented with slowly progressive left hemi-Parkinsonism, left hand apraxia, myoclonus, dystonia, visuospatial disturbances, and alien limb phenomenon, resembling corticobasal syndrome. Eight years later, neuropathology revealed features of Alzheimer's disease, with asymmetrical (right more than left) cortical tau burden with image(More)
A neuroepithelial tumor showing combined histological features of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT) and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is described. The patient was a 60-year-old male with a long-standing temporal lobe tumor and seizures. After a long, dormant period, the tumor, which had been localized in the left uncus, re-grew rapidly and(More)
Olig2, a member of the group of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, is innately expressed in oligodendrocytes. In the neoplastic condition, Olig2 is widely expressed in astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas, but its expression in ependymomas remains poorly documented. A total of 59 brain tumors including 16 ependymomas, 32 astrocytomas, and 11(More)
OBJECTIVE Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with neuroaxonal spheroids (HDLS) is an adult-onset white matter disease that presents clinically with cognitive, mental and motor dysfunction. Several autopsy reports have indicated that the corpus callosum (CC), the largest bundle of white matter, is severely affected in patients with HDLS. The aim of this(More)
Grumose degeneration (GD) of the dentate nucleus is a common feature in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), but its pathogenesis has not been well studied, and its clinical significance remains unknown. This report describes a quantitative study of GD in 9 cases of PSP using image analysis with single- and double-immunolabeling, as well as histochemical(More)