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Attention can be directed either voluntarily based on the goals of the individual or involuntarily "captured" by salient stimuli in the immediate environment. Although involuntary capture is a critical means of directing attention, the completion of many common tasks requires our ability to ignore salient, but otherwise irrelevant stimuli while restricting(More)
Working memory capacity reflects a core ability of the individual that affects performance on many cognitive tasks. Recent work has suggested that an important covariate of memory capacity is attentional control, and specifically that low-capacity individuals are more susceptible to attentional capture by distractors than high-capacity individuals are, with(More)
The amount of information we can actively maintain 'in mind' is very limited. This capacity limitation, known as working memory (WM) capacity, has been of great interest because of its wide scope influence on the variety of intellectual abilities. Recently, there has been an ongoing debate about how this capacity should be best characterized. One viewpoint(More)
Threat-related attentional biases represent a basic survival mechanism. These biases include an engagement bias involving rapid direction of attention toward threat and a disengagement bias involving slow direction of attention away from threat. The exact nature of these biases in healthy and anxious individuals remains controversial because of the(More)
A key motivation for understanding capacity in working memory (WM) is its relationship with fluid intelligence. Recent evidence has suggested a two-factor model that distinguishes between the number of representations that can be maintained in WM and the resolution of those representations. To determine how these factors relate to fluid intelligence, we(More)
Several theories have been put forth to explain the relation between working memory (WM) and gF. Unfortunately, no single factor has been shown to fully account for the relation between these two important constructs. In the current study we tested whether multiple factors (capacity, attention control, and secondary memory) would collectively account for(More)
A classic question concerns whether humans can attend multiple locations or objects at once. Although it is generally agreed that the answer to this question is "yes," the limits on this ability are subject to extensive debate. According to one view, attentional resources can be flexibly allocated to a variable number of locations, with an inverse(More)
Older adults are more vulnerable to a negative impact of irrelevant information on cognitive performance. We used a psychophysical approach to evaluate which aspects of distraction are altered in aging: susceptibility for attention to be captured by a distractor, or the timing of disengagement from processing a distractor. We found that younger and older(More)
Visual working memory is an online workspace for temporarily representing visual information from the environment. The two most prevalent empirical characteristics of working memory are that it is supported by sustained neural activity over a delay period and it has a severely limited capacity for representing multiple items simultaneously. Traditionally,(More)
A boronic acid-appended fluorescent receptor was incorporated into self-assembled nanofibers containing a hydrophobic FRET-paired dye to develop a gel-based fluorocolorimetric sensor for polyols. We demonstrated that the gel-based sensor is capable of detecting polyols such as catechol and dopamine not only under semi-wet conditions, but also under dry(More)