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Neurological disorders similar to parkinsonian syndrome and signal hyperintensity in brain on T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images have been reported in patients receiving long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN). These symptoms have been associated with manganese (Mn) depositions in brain. Although alterations of signal intensity on T1-weighted MR(More)
In this study we investigated the relationship between the development of the olfactory, preoptic, and midbrain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal systems and testicular differentiation in eels (Anguilla japonica) from embryonic stages through adulthood (5.4-50 cm body length). GnRH-synthesizing neuronal populations were first observed in the(More)
To investigate whether cholinergic hypofunctions in the brain influence hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity, we examined the effects of cholinergic neurotoxin ethylcholine mustard aziridinium ion on basal and stress-induced levels of corticosterone in rats. Blood sampling from rats following intracerebroventricular injection of saline (5 microl, as a(More)
BACKGROUND Tissue hypoxia induces the degradation of adenosine triphosphate, resulting in the production of uric acid (UA). Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been reported to have high serum levels of UA (sUA), compared with control subjects. However, the relationship between sUA levels and spirometric measures has not been(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic pulmonary disorders, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and fibrosing lung diseases, and atrial fibrillation (AF), are prevalent in elderly people. The impact of cardiac co-morbidities in the elderly, where pulmonary function is impaired, cannot be ignored as they influence mortality. The relationship between the(More)
A sustained elevation of oxidative stress in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) might help to explain their increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. We tested the hypothesis that the values of oxidative stress are increased in otherwise healthy subjects with OSAS when compared with closely matched control subjects. We performed a(More)
BACKGROUND Metabolic syndrome (Mets) is reportedly associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the relationship between abdominal circumference (AC) and decline in FEV(1) has not been elucidated. We aimed to investigate this relationship among male current smokers. METHODS Spirometry was performed on subjects (n = 3,257) ≥ 40(More)
In the lungs of smokers, oxidative stress rises due to increase of free radicals and oxidants, including lipid peroxide (LPO). The functions of alveolar macrophages (AMs) are altered in such an environment, and their survival is prolonged against toxicities of cigarette smoke (CS) by an unknown mechanism. Whereas functions of AMs are potentially regulated(More)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a known risk factor for cardiovascular death in Western countries. Because Japan has a low cardiovascular death rate, the association between a lower level of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and mortality in Japan's general population is unknown. To clarify this, we conducted a community-based longitudinal(More)