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Photolysis of a caged Ca(2+) compound was used to characterize the dependence of cerebellar long-term synaptic depression (LTD) on postsynaptic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). Elevating [Ca(2+)](i) was sufficient to induce LTD without requiring any of the other signals produced by synaptic activity. A sigmoidal relationship between [Ca(2+)](i) and LTD(More)
BACKGROUND Causative role of encephalitis in major psychotic features, dyskinesias (particularly orofacial), seizures, and autonomic and respiratory changes has been recently emphasized. These symptoms often occur in young females with ovarian teratomas and are frequently associated with serum and CSF autoantibodies to the NMDA receptor (NMDAR). METHODS(More)
Abnormal protein accumulation and cell death with cytoplasmic vacuoles are hallmarks of several neurodegenerative disorders. We previously identified p97/valosin-containing protein (VCP), an AAA ATPase with two conserved ATPase domains (D1 and D2), as an interacting partner of the Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) protein with expanded polyglutamines that causes(More)
Nakajo-Nishimura syndrome (NNS) is a disorder that segregates in an autosomal recessive fashion. Symptoms include periodic fever, skin rash, partial lipomuscular atrophy, and joint contracture. Here, we report a mutation in the human proteasome subunit beta type 8 gene (PSMB8) that encodes the immunoproteasome subunit β5i in patients with NNS. This G201V(More)
We characterized the genetic diversity of the complete VP1 region of coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) and enterovirus 71 (EV71) isolated from patients with hand, foot, and mouth disease in Toyama from 1981 to 2007 to evaluate the relationship between epidemics and genetic changes. The predominant genogroups of CA16 changed from B to C in 1995-1998, and genogroup C(More)
In drug addiction, the opioid system is thought to mediate motivational effects through dopamine-independent mechanisms. We have investigated associations of the mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM) variations with methamphetamine (MAP) dependence/psychosis. The allelic frequency of A118G (Asn40Asp) in exon 1 of ORPM was 45.3% in our control subjects, but only(More)
Synaptic activity produces short-lived second messengers that ultimately yield a long-term depression (LTD) of cerebellar Purkinje cells. Here, we test the hypothesis that these brief second messenger signals are translated into long-lasting biochemical signals by a positive feedback loop that includes protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein(More)
Several case-control studies and genome-wide association studies have examined the relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SNCA gene and Parkinson's disease (PD), and have provided inconsistent results. We investigated the relationships between SNPs rs356229, rs356219, rs356220, rs7684318, and rs2736990 and the risk of sporadic(More)