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Nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), members of the neurotrophin family, bind to and activate TrkA, TrkB and TrkC, respectively, members of the Trk receptor tyrosine kinase family, to exert various effects including promotion of differentiation and survival, and regulation of synaptic plasticity in(More)
Cathepsin S inhibitors are well-known to be an attractive target as immunological therapeutic agents. Recently, our gene expression analysis identified that cathepsin S inhibitors could also be effective for neuropathic pain. Herein, we describe the efficacy of selective cathepsin S inhibitors as antihyperalgesics in a model of neuropathic pain in rats(More)
The women's own intrauterine environment may influence their own pregnancy and their babies. The aim of our study was to investigate how a woman's birth weight affects the course of her pregnancy later in life as well as the body size of her babies; this study was based on the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) concept. We collected(More)
Thirty-two 5-alkoxyprimaquines have been synthesized and evaluated as blood schizonticides (Plasmodium berghei, mouse) and tissue schizonticides (Plasmodium cynomolgi, monkey). Several of these compounds were extremely active in both screens. Such a broad spectrum of antimalarial efficacy offers the possibility of a single drug that could cure the various(More)
We describe here a novel 4-amino-2-cyanopyrimidine scaffold for nonpeptidomimetic cathepsin S selective inhibitors. Some of the synthesized compounds have sub-nanomolar potency and high selectivity toward cathepsin S along with promising pharmacokinetic and physicochemical properties. The key structural features of the inhibitors consist of a combination of(More)
Nonpeptidic, selective, and potent cathepsin S inhibitors were derived from an in-house pyrrolopyrimidine cathepsin K inhibitor by modification of the P2 and P3 moieties. The pyrrolopyrimidine-based inhibitors show nanomolar inhibition of cathepsin S with over 100-fold selectivity against other cysteine proteases, including cathepsin K and L. Some of the(More)
We describe here orally active and brain-penetrant cathepsin S selective inhibitors, which are virtually devoid of hERG K(+) channel affinity, yet exhibit nanomolar potency against cathepsin S and over 100-fold selectivity to cathepsin L. The new non-peptidic inhibitors are based on a 2-cyanopyrimidine scaffold bearing a spiro[3.5]non-6-yl-methyl amine at(More)
In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of infants with very low birth weight (VLBW, i.e., weight less than 1,500 g) in Japan. However, the effect of VLBW on subsequent behavioral development and mental health remains unknown. Subjects enrolled were 57 individuals (13.4 ± 1.9 years old) with VLBW (VLBW group), including 23(More)
A series of new 9-phenanthrene amino alcohols has been prepared in which each compound bears from one to five halogen or halogen-containing moieties. A number of these compounds are extremely active against Plasmodium berghei in the mouse. Some structural requirements for optimal efficacy are considered.