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Endoreduplication is a common process in eukaryotes that involves DNA amplification without corresponding cell divisions. Cell size in various organisms has been linked to endoreduplication, but the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We have used a genetic strategy to identify molecules involved in endocycles in Arabidopsis. We isolated two extreme(More)
The mechanical properties of plant organs depend upon anatomical structure, cell-cell adhesion, cell turgidity, and the mechanical properties of their cell walls. By testing the mechanical responses of Arabidopsis mutants, it is possible to deduce the contribution that polymers of the cell wall make to organ strength. We developed a method to measure the(More)
BACKGROUND DNA topoisomerases are enzymes that control the topology of DNA in all cells. DNA gyrase is unique among the topoisomerases in that it is the only enzyme that can actively supercoil DNA using the free energy of ATP hydrolysis. Until recently gyrase was thought to be unique to bacteria, but has now been discovered in plants. The genome of the(More)
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