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Long-term exposure to pyschostimulants and opioids induced neuronal plasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that astrocytes actively participate in synaptic plasticity. We show here that a glial modulator propentofylline (PPF) dramatically diminished the activation of astrocytes induced by drugs of abuse, such as methamphetamine (METH) and morphine(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging before, during, and after kainic acid (KA)-induced limbic seizure status in cats demonstrated the bilateral hippocampi as slightly high-intensity areas on the T2-weighted images during the limbic seizure status, and isointensity areas 1-2 weeks after KA injection when the limbic seizure status subsided. However, the hippocampi(More)
It has been widely recognized that chronic pain could cause physiological changes at supraspinal levels. The delta-opioidergic system is involved in antinociception, emotionality, immune response and neuron-glia communication. In this study, we show that mice with chronic pain exhibit anxiety-like behavior and an increase of astrocytes in the cingulate(More)
Methamphetamine is a powerfully addictive psychostimulant that dramatically affects the mammalian central nervous system. Methylphenidate has been shown to have psychostimulus effects similar to methamphetamine. In the present study, we compared several effects of methylphenidate to those of methamphetamine. The subcutaneous administration of either(More)
Detection and elimination of virus-infected cells by CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) depends on recognition of virus-derived peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules on the surface of infected cells. In the present study, we showed that inactivation of the activity of viral kinase Us3 encoded by herpes simplex(More)
INTRODUCTION The present study was designed to investigate the rewarding effects induced by tramadol and its active metabolite O-desmethyltramadol (M1) under a neuropathic pain-like state. RESULTS In opioid receptor binding and G protein activation, we confirmed that M1, but not tramadol, showed mu-opioid receptor (MOR) agonistic activity. Furthermore, we(More)
Methylphenidate (MPH) is commonly used in the treatment of narcolepsy and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) in Japan. MPH has been also known to have psychostimulus effects similar to methamphetamine (METH). In the present study, we compared several effects of MPH to METH. It is well-known that the repeated administration of psychostimulant(More)
Multiple changes occur in the aging brain, leading to age-related emotional disorders. A growing body of recent evidence suggests that the cortical delta-opioid receptor system plays a critical role in anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors in the rodent. In this study, we show that aging mice promoted anxiety-like behaviors as characterized by both the(More)
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