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BACKGROUND Human artificial chromosomes (HACs) are generated from the precursor DNA constructs containing alpha-satellite DNA with CENP-B boxes, and the process could be used for the incorporation of large genes in the HACs. Guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I (GCH1) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme for the biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin, the(More)
In Graves' disease, the IgG class autoantibody against thyrotropin receptor (TRAb) is produced excessively and induces hyperthyroidism. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is one of the human herpesviruses that persists for life, mainly in B lymphocytes, and is occasionally reactivated. Therefore, EBV may affect the antibody production of B lymphocytes that would(More)
To study variations of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), we analyzed the gp350/220 gene for several cell lines and Japanese wild isolates using direct sequencing. The N-terminal region was highly conserved in all EBVs except for Jijoye/P3HR-1 and a few isolates. The variation of the region coincided with EBV types A and B (also referred to as types 1 and 2) and(More)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous virus that infects most adults latently. It persists in B lymphocytes and reactivates occasionally. Graves' disease is an autoimmune hyperthyroidism caused by thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbs). We have reported that Graves' disease patients and healthy controls have EBV-infected lymphocytes that have TRAbs on(More)
Various autoantibodies have been reported to be detected during the progression of infectious mononucleosis. We observed a case of infectious mononucleosis due to Epstein-Barr virus primary infection for 2 months, and noticed the transiently increased titer of thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies detected at the acute phase on the 3rd day after admission. At(More)
Graves' disease is an autoimmune hyperthyroidism caused by thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbs). Because Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) persists in B cells and is occasionally reactivated, we hypothesized that EBV contributes to TRAbs production in Graves' disease patients by stimulating the TRAbs-producing B cells. In order for EBV to stimulate(More)
In humans and animals, intestinal flora is indispensable for bile acid transformation. The goal of our study was to establish gnotobiotic mice with intestinal bacteria of human origin in order to examine the role of intestinal bacteria in the transformation of bile acids in vivo using the technique of gnotobiology. Eight strains of bile acid-deconjugating(More)
The cell of origin of tumors and the factors determining the cell of origin remain unclear. In this study, a mouse model of precursor B acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (pre-B ALL/LBL) was established by retroviral transduction of Myc genes (N-Myc or c-Myc) into mouse bone marrow cells. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) exhibited the highest(More)
Recently, it has been shown that approximately 80% of Merkel cell carcinomas harbor a novel polyomavirus named Merkel cell polyomavirus, thought to be a carcinogenic agent. However, it is not fully elucidated whether Merkel cell carcinomas differ with regard to the presence or absence of Merkel cell polyomavirus. To address this, we investigated morphologic(More)
Merkel cell polyomavirus is a novel polyomavirus that is monoclonally integrated into genomes of up to 80% of human Merkel cell carcinomas. Merkel cell polyomavirus-positive Merkel cell carcinomas showed less metastatic tendency and better prognosis according to some reports, whereas others disagree. In this study, we analyzed clinicopathological(More)