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Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades are activated in response to various extracellular stimuli, including growth factors and environmental stresses. A MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK), termed ASK1, was identified that activated two different subgroups of MAP kinase kinases (MAPKK), SEK1 (or MKK4) and MKK3/MAPKK6 (or MKK6), which in turn(More)
In plants, a number of MAP kinase (MAPK), MAPK kinase (MAPKK), and MAPKK kinase (MAPKKK) homologues have been reported. However, there have been no reports of protein-protein interactions between these kinases or molecular analysis of MAPK cascades in higher plants. To analyze a possible MAPK cascade in Arabidopsis thaliana, we took two molecular(More)
Formin homology (FH) proteins are implicated in cell polarization and cytokinesis through actin organization. There are two FH proteins in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bni1p and Bnr1p. Bni1p physically interacts with Rho family small G proteins (Rho1p and Cdc42p), actin, two actin-binding proteins (profilin and Bud6p), and a polarity protein (Spa2p).(More)
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a conserved eukaryotic signaling module that converts receptor signals into various outputs. MAPK is activated through phosphorylation by MAPK kinase (MAPKK), which is first activated by MAPKK kinase (MAPKKK). A genetic selection based on a MAPK pathway in yeast was used to identify a mouse protein(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) regulates many aspects of cellular function. A member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) family, TAK1, was previously identified as a mediator in the signaling pathway of TGF-beta superfamily members. The yeast two-hybrid system has now revealed two human proteins, termed TAB1 and TAB2(More)
We describe here the cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding a protein kinase that has high sequence homology to members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MEKK) family; this cDNA is named cATMEKKI (Arabidopsis thaliana MAP kinase or ERK kinase kinase 1). The catalytic domain of the putative ATMEKK1 protein shows(More)
The TAK1 MAPKKK mediates activation of JNK and NF-KB in the IL-1-activated signaling pathway. Here we report the identification of TAB2, a novel intermediate in the IL-1 pathway that functionally links TAK1 to TRAF6. Expression of TAB2 induces JNK and NF-kappaB activation, whereas a dominant-negative mutant TAB2 impairs their activation by IL-1. IL-1(More)
The PKC1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a homolog of mammalian protein kinase C that is required for normal growth and division of yeast cells. We report here the isolation of the yeast MKK1 and MKK2 (for mitogen-activated protein [MAP] kinase-kinase) genes which, when overexpressed, suppress the cell lysis defect of a temperature-sensitive pkc1(More)
A possible MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade of Arabidopsis thaliana was identified on the basis of both yeast 2-hybrid analysis and complementation analysis of yeast mutants. Specific protein-protein interactions between ATMPK4 (a MAPK) and MEK1 (a MAPKK) and interactions between MEK1 and ATMEKK1 (a MAPKKK) were detected by using the 2-hybrid system. A growth(More)
Intracellular signaling from receptor tyrosine kinases in mammalian cells results in activation of a signal cascade that includes the guanine nucleotide-binding protein Ras and the protein kinases Raf, MEK [mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase], and MAPK. MAPK activation that is dependent on the(More)