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Mast cells secrete multiple cytokines and play an important role in allergic inflammation. Although it is widely accepted that bacteria infection occasionally worsens allergic airway inflammation, the mechanism has not been defined. In this study, we show that LPS induced Th2-associated cytokine production such as IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13 from mast cells and(More)
Mutations in presenilin (PS) 1 or PS2 genes account for the majority of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease, and these mutations have been shown to increase production of species of amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) ending at residue 42, i.e. the most amyloidogenic form of Abeta. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms whereby mutant PS induces(More)
An extracellular polysaccharide, AC-1, produced by Acetobacter polysaccharogenes is composed of beta-(1,4)glucan with branches of glucosyl residues. We found that AC-1 showed a strong activity to induce production of interleukin-12 P40 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha by macrophage cell lines in vitro. Cellulase treatment completely abolished the activity of(More)
Autophagy is a common physiological function in all eukaryotes. The process is induced by depletion of nutrients including amino acids. GADD34 is expressed following DNA damage, ER stresses and amino acid deprivation. Here, we investigated the effects of GADD34 on autophagy and cell activation in macrophages. The deprivation of tyrosine and cysteine(More)
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