Keijo Hämäläinen

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One of the fascinating aspects of the history of life is the apparent increase in morphological complexity through time, a well known example being mammalian cheek tooth evolution. In contrast, experimental studies of development more readily show a decrease in complexity, again well exemplified by mammalian teeth, in which tooth crown features called cusps(More)
We report the oxygen K-edge spectra of ices Ih, VI, VII, and VIII measured with X-ray Raman scattering. The pre-edge and main-edge contributions increase strongly with density, even though the hydrogen bond arrangements are very similar in these phases. While the near-edge spectral features in water and ice have often been linked to hydrogen bonding, we(More)
The origin of the turtle shell over 200 million years ago greatly modified the amniote body plan, and the morphological plasticity of the shell has promoted the adaptive radiation of turtles. The shell, comprising a dorsal carapace and a ventral plastron, is a layered structure formed by basal endochondral axial skeletal elements (ribs, vertebrae) and(More)
Three-dimensional (3D) X-ray imaging methods have advanced tremendously during recent years. Traditional tomography uses absorption as the contrast mechanism, but for many purposes its sensitivity is limited. The introduction of diffraction, small-angle scattering, refraction, and phase contrasts has increased the sensitivity, especially in materials(More)
In this study, indomethacin-loaded thermally oxidized mesoporous silicon microparticles (TOPSi-IMC) were formulated into tablets with excipients in order to improve the dissolution and permeability properties of the poorly soluble drug. Formulations of TOPSi-IMC particles and excipients were prepared at different TOPSi-IMC particle ratios (25, 30 and 35%).(More)
The properties of linear alcohols in the liquid phase are studied by molecular dynamics simulations. We analyze the effects of the use of bond length constraints on the simulation density, self-diffusion constant, and hydrogen-bonding characteristics of the alcohol series. We find that the densities are well-reproduced in each of the cases but that the(More)
The temperature-dependent hydrogen-bond geometry in liquid water is studied by x-ray Compton scattering using synchrotron radiation combined with density functional theory analysis. Systematic changes, related to the weakening of hydrogen bonding, are observed in the shape of the Compton profile upon increasing the temperature. Using model calculations and(More)
ERKALE is a novel software program for computing X-ray properties, such as ground-state electron momentum densities, Compton profiles, and core and valence electron excitation spectra of atoms and molecules. The program operates at Hartree-Fock or density-functional level of theory and supports Gaussian basis sets of arbitrary angular momentum and a wide(More)
We report on the microscopic structure of water at sub- and supercritical conditions studied using X-ray Raman spectroscopy, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, and density functional theory. Systematic changes in the X-ray Raman spectra with increasing pressure and temperature are observed. Throughout the studied thermodynamic range, the experimental(More)