Keijo Hämäläinen

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A wavelet-based sparsity-promoting reconstruction method is studied in the context of tomography with severely limited projection data. Such imaging problems are ill-posed inverse problems, or very sensitive to measurement and modeling errors. The reconstruction method is based on minimizing a sum of a data discrepancy term based on an 2-norm and another(More)
One of the fascinating aspects of the history of life is the apparent increase in morphological complexity through time, a well known example being mammalian cheek tooth evolution. In contrast, experimental studies of development more readily show a decrease in complexity, again well exemplified by mammalian teeth, in which tooth crown features called cusps(More)
We report the oxygen K-edge spectra of ices Ih, VI, VII, and VIII measured with X-ray Raman scattering. The pre-edge and main-edge contributions increase strongly with density, even though the hydrogen bond arrangements are very similar in these phases. While the near-edge spectral features in water and ice have often been linked to hydrogen bonding, we(More)
In this study, indomethacin-loaded thermally oxidized mesoporous silicon microparticles (TOPSi-IMC) were formulated into tablets with excipients in order to improve the dissolution and permeability properties of the poorly soluble drug. Formulations of TOPSi-IMC particles and excipients were prepared at different TOPSi-IMC particle ratios (25, 30 and 35%).(More)
We report on the microscopic structure of water at sub- and supercritical conditions studied using X-ray Raman spectroscopy, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, and density functional theory. Systematic changes in the X-ray Raman spectra with increasing pressure and temperature are observed. Throughout the studied thermodynamic range, the experimental(More)
The microscopic structure of the hydrogen-bond network of water-alcohol mixtures was studied using X-ray Raman scattering (XRS). To systematically examine how the hydrogen-bond network of water is affected by an increasing size of the hydrophobic group, small linear alcohols (methanol, ethanol, and propanol) in constant mole fractions were studied. The(More)
We report on the formation of tetrahydrofuran clathrate hydrate studied by x-ray Raman scattering measurements at the oxygen K edge. A comparison of x-ray Raman spectra measured from water-tetrahydrofuran mixtures and tetrahydrofuran hydrate at different temperatures supports stochastic hydrate formation models rather than models assuming hydrate(More)
The interpretation of the oxygen near-edge spectrum of water has been debated intensively. We present new measurements of the temperature dependence of the spectrum and perform a van't Hoff analysis for the pre-edge intensity. Many microscopical and thermodynamic properties of liquid water have been described in the literature in terms of mixture models,(More)
Three-dimensional (3D) X-ray imaging methods have advanced tremendously during recent years. Traditional tomography uses absorption as the contrast mechanism, but for many purposes its sensitivity is limited. The introduction of diffraction, small-angle scattering, refraction, and phase contrasts has increased the sensitivity, especially in materials(More)
Relationships between the elemental composition, the microfibril angle (MFA) distribution and the average shape of the cell cross-section of irrigated-fertilised and untreated Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) earlywood were studied. Sample material was obtained from Flakaliden, Sweden. The elemental composition was studied by determining the relative(More)