Keiji Tanaka

Learn More
The soil sorption coefficient Kd and the soil organic carbon sorption coefficient KOC of pesticides are basic parameters used by environmental scientists and regulatory agencies worldwide in describing the environmental fate and behavior of pesticides. They are a measure of the strength of sorption of pesticides to soils and other geosorbent surfaces at the(More)
It is often presumed that all chemicals in soil are available to microorganisms, plant roots, and soil fauna via dermal exposure. Subsequent bioaccumulation through the food chain may then result in exposure to higher organisms. Using the presumption of total availability, national governments reduce environmental threshold levels of regulated chemicals by(More)
Consumer risk assessment is a crucial step in the regulatory approval of pesticide use on food crops. Recently, an additional hurdle has been added to the formal consumer risk assessment process with the introduction of short-term intake or exposure assessment and a comparable short-term toxicity reference, the acute reference dose. Exposure to residues(More)
The large-scale commercial cultivation of transgenic crops has undergone a steady increase since their introduction 10 years ago. Most of these crops bear introduced traits that are of agronomic importance, such as herbicide or insect resistance. These traits are likely to impact upon the use of pesticides on these crops, as well as the pesticide market as(More)
A simple and easy method to prepare super-liquid-repellent surfaces is proposed. Sol-gel films were prepared by hydrolysis and condensation of alkoxysilane compounds. Both surface energy and roughness were controlled using colloidal silica particles and fluoroalkylsilane. When the fractional amounts of both colloidal silica and fluoroalkylsilane were(More)
The thermally backward reaction involved in the mechanofluorochromism of dibenzoylmethanatoboron difluoride (BF2DBM) derivatives, accompanied by an amorphous-crystalline phase transition, was quantitatively evaluated based on kinetics and thermodynamics. The kinetics was discussed by evaluation of the effect of temperature on the time-dependent changes of(More)
Density profiles of a perdeuterated poly(methyl methacrylate) (dPMMA) film spin-coated on a substrate in water, hexane, and methanol, which are "nonsolvents" for dPMMA, were examined along the direction normal to the interface by specular neutron reflectivity (NR). The interfaces of dPMMA with the liquids were diffuse in comparison with the pristine(More)
Well-defined poly(styrene-block-2-perfluorooctyl ethyl acrylate) [P(St-b-PFA)] copolymers with various chemical compositions were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization. Films of P(St-b-PFA) were structurally characterized, from bulk to surface, on the basis of transmittance electron microscopic observation and small-angle X-ray scattering,(More)
Qualitatively different thickness dependences have been observed in the glass transition temperature, Tg, of polystyrene (PS) films supported by hydrogen-passivated silicon (H-Si). It has been suggested that upon annealing at high temperatures in air, the polymer/substrate interface of these films (i.e., PS/Si), though buried underneath the PS layer, might(More)
Free carriers, polarons (P), in conjugated polymers play a key role in the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, we present solid evidence that P can be predominantly generated from polaron pairs (PP) in a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) film under zero electric field. P formation from PP strongly depends on temperature. The temperature dependence of P(More)