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We succeeded in isolating a novel cDNA involved in astaxanthin biosynthesis from the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis, by an expression cloning method using an Escherichia coli transformant as a host that synthesizes β-carotene due to the Erwinia uredovora carotenoid biosynthesis genes. The cloned cDNA was shown to encode a novel enzyme, β-carotene(More)
We describe the heterologous expression of monellin in the yeast Candida utilis. A single-chain monellin gene was expressed under the control of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [correction of decarboxylase] gene promoter from C. utilis. A promoter-deficient marker gene allowed high-copy-number integration of vectors into either the rDNA locus(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in many inflammatory responses and is also involved in carcinogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of extracts from Humulus lupulus L. on both the production of NO and the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. The production of NO was induced(More)
The effects of dietary isohumulones, the main components accounting for the bitter taste of beer, on lipid metabolism were examined. Young female C57BL/6N mice were fed diets containing isomerized hop extract (IHE), which consists mainly of isohumulones. Administration of IHE with an atherogenic (high-fat and high-cholesterol) diet for 2 weeks resulted in a(More)
The yeast Candida boidinii PEP4 and PRB1 genes, encoding proteinase A (PrA) and proteinase B (PrB), respectively, have been cloned and their primary structures were analyzed. The open reading frames of the PEP4 gene (1263 bp encoding a protein of 420 amino acids) and the PRBI gene (1683 bp encoding a protein of 560 amino acids) were found. The deduced amino(More)
In order to develop practical recombinant DNA techniques in the industrially important yeast Candida utilis, at least six plasmids harboring autonomously replicating sequences (ARSs) were isolated from a C. utilis genomic library. Two ARSs were subjected to detailed analysis. Sequences of 1.9 and 1.8 kb were found to be necessary to exert ARS activity in a(More)
It has been demonstrated that the light-to-moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages is associated with significant reductions in all-cause and particularly cardiovascular mortality. While the inverse association between red-wine consumption and cardiovascular risk is globally recognized as the French paradox, many epidemiological studies have concluded(More)
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are dietary lipid sensors that regulate fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism. The hypolipidemic effects of fibrate drugs and the therapeutic benefits of the thiazolidinedione drugs are due to their activation of PPARalpha and -gamma, respectively. In this study, isohumulones, the bitter compounds(More)
Isohumulones derived from hops are the major bitter compounds in beer. It was recently reported that isohumulones activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) alpha and gamma in vitro and modulated glucose and lipid metabolism in vivo. In this study, we examined the effects of isomerized hop extract (IHE) primarily containing isohumulones(More)
Anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic effects of beer on heterocyclic amine (HCA)-induced carcinogenesis were studied in vitro and in vivo. Four commercial beers (two pilsner-type, black, and stout) showed inhibitory effects against five HCAs, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP),(More)