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The complexities of the chronic fatigue syndrome and the methodologic problems associated with its study indicate the need for a comprehensive, systematic, and integrated approach to the evaluation, classification, and study of persons with this condition and other fatiguing illnesses. We propose a conceptual framework and a set of guidelines that provide(More)
CONTEXT Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Statistical methods used to estimate deaths in the United States attributable to influenza have not accounted for RSV circulation. OBJECTIVE To develop a statistical model using national mortality and viral surveillance data to estimate annual influenza- and(More)
This report updates the 2001 recommendations by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding the use of influenza vaccine and antiviral agents (MMWR 2001;50 [No. RR-4]:1-44). The 2002 recommendations include new or updated information regarding 1) the timing of influenza vaccination by risk group; 2) influenza vaccine for children aged(More)
CONTEXT Gulf War (GW) veterans report nonspecific symptoms significantly more often than their nondeployed peers. However, no specific disorder has been identified, and the etiologic basis and clinical significance of their symptoms remain unclear. OBJECTIVES To organize symptoms reported by US Air Force GW veterans into a case definition, to characterize(More)
CONTEXT Respiratory viral infections are responsible for a large number of hospitalizations in the United States each year. OBJECTIVE To estimate annual influenza-associated hospitalizations in the United States by hospital discharge category, discharge type, and age group. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) data(More)
An avian H5N1 influenza A virus (A/Hong Kong/156/97) was isolated from a tracheal aspirate obtained from a 3-year-old child in Hong Kong with a fatal illness consistent with influenza. Serologic analysis indicated the presence of an H5 hemagglutinin. All eight RNA segments were derived from an avian influenza A virus. The hemagglutinin contained multiple(More)
From May to December 1997, 18 cases of mild to severe respiratory illness caused by avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses were identified in Hong Kong. The emergence of an avian virus in the human population prompted an epidemiological investigation to determine the extent of human-to-human transmission of the virus and risk factors associated with infection.(More)
Almost all deaths related to current influenza epidemics occur among the elderly. However, mortality was greatest among the young during the 1918-1919 pandemic. This study compared the age distribution of influenza-related deaths in the United States during this century's three influenza A pandemics with that of the following epidemics. Half of(More)
BACKGROUND On March 23, 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) was notified of an outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Guinea. On August 8, the WHO declared the epidemic to be a "public health emergency of international concern." METHODS By September 14, 2014, a total of 4507 probable and confirmed cases, including 2296 deaths from EVD (Zaire(More)
CONTEXT Although the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of influenza vaccination are well established for persons aged 65 years or older, the benefits for healthy adults younger than 65 years are less clear. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness and cost-benefit of influenza vaccine in preventing influenza-like illness (ILI) and reducing societal costs(More)