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Recent developments in the technology of cryopreservation have permitted the long-term storage of many strains of microalgae with reliable rates of survival. However, many strains still cannot be recovered from storage in liquid nitrogen. Here, we investigated the effects of various cryoprotectants in achieving comparatively high survival rate around 50%.(More)
BACKGROUND Despite the availability of conventional devices for making single-cell manipulations, determining the hardness of a single cell remains difficult. Here, we consider the cell to be a linear elastic body and apply Young's modulus (modulus of elasticity), which is defined as the ratio of the repulsive force (stress) in response to the applied(More)
BACKGROUND If a fixed stress is applied to the three-dimensional z-axis of a solid material, followed by heating, the amount of thermal expansion increases according to a fixed coefficient of thermal expansion. When expansion is plotted against temperature, the transition temperature at which the physical properties of the material change is at the apex of(More)
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