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1. In Mg(2+)-free external solution, rat cortical neurons in cultured networks entered a stable firing mode, consisting of regular bursts of action potentials superimposed on long-lasting depolarizations. The average separation between bursts varied from culture to culture, but was usually between 5 and 20 s. The distribution of burst intervals followed a(More)
We have examined the stimulation and recording properties of conjugated polymer microelectrode arrays as interfaces with neural networks of dissociated cortical cells. In particular the stimulation properties were investigated as a means of supplying a neural network with information. The stimulation efficiency at low stimulation voltages was evaluated and(More)
The ATP-gated P2X(4) receptor is a cation channel, which is important in various pathophysiological events. The architecture of the P2X(4) receptor in the activated state and how to change its structure in response to ATP binding are not fully understood. Here, we analyze the architecture and ATP-induced structural changes in P2X(4) receptors using(More)
The direct observation of individual molecules in action is required for a better understanding of the mechanisms of biological reactions. We used a high-speed atomic force microscope (AFM) in solution to visualize short DNA fragments in motion. The technique represents a new approach in analyzing molecular interactions, and it allowed us to observe(More)
The capability for multisite stimulation is one of the biggest potential advantages of microelectrode arrays (MEAs). There remain, however, several technical problems which have hindered the development of a practical stimulation system. An important design goal is to allow programmable multisite stimulation, which produces minimal interference with(More)
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) receptor (IP(3)R) acts as a ligand-gated channel that mediates neuronal signals by releasing Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum. The three-dimensional (3D) structure of tetrameric IP(3)R has been demonstrated by using electron microscopy (EM) with static specimens; however, the dynamic aspects of the IP(3)R structure(More)
Mg2+ plays an important role in biological functions, similar to that of Ca2+. In terms of neural activity, it is well known that Mg2+ blocks the NMDA receptor. However, the relationship between Mg2+ and neural function has not been well understood. We have investigated the effect of low extracellular Mg2+ concentration ([Mg2+]o) on neural activity in rat(More)
Ink formulations and protocols that enable the deposition and patterning of a conducting polymer (PEDOT:PSS) in the nanodomain have been developed. Significantly, we demonstrated the ability to pattern onto soft substrates such as silicone gum and polyethylene terephthalate (PET), which are materials of interest for low cost, flexible electronics. The(More)
Metal oxides were used to study how the sensory nerve fibers recognize surface properties. Neurites selectively grow on the metal oxides deposited on silica glass, being guided along the axial direction of the patterns. The guiding ability depends on the electronegativity of the metal in metal oxide. Aluminum oxide or indium oxide patterns showed a(More)